UNIT 7 : Английский язык для юристов - Александр Яковлевич Зеликман : Книги по праву, правоведение

UNIT 7

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Фонетика: sounds [ou], [ý]

Словообразование: суффиксы прилагательных -ary/-ory; -ous

Грамматика: время Present Perfect Continuous, степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий

Текст: «Steve's story»

7.1. Sound right

7.7.1. Listen, look, say:

bow        bone       boat        roll          window

doe         dome      dote        poll         follow

so            soul        soak        old          yellow

toe          toad        toast       told         cargo

roe          road        roast       cold        tomato

low          load        loaf         stroll       photo

hoe         hoed       host        shoulder momento

7.1.2. Listen, look, say:

1. Go slow.

2. Follow your nose.

3. Nobody home.

4. Don't grow cold.

5. No bones broken.

6. It's a cold coal to blow at.

7. I vote we go home.

8. Oh, no, don't go home alone.

9. I don't suppose you know Rose.

10. I won't crow over a foe.

7.1.3. Listen and look. Pay attention to the difference in pronunciation of the sounds [ou] — [O] — [þ].

I

1. I'm going to the grocer's.

2. Call at the post-office, will you?

1. It closes at four. The shop closes at four too. Can't you go to the post-office? I want a lot of groceries.

2. Oh, all right. I'll go.

1. Get me some stamps, will you?

II

1. I've got to go.

2. Oh, don't go.

1. I've got to.

2. No, you don't have to go.

1. I want to go home.

2. What do you want to go home for?

1. Open the door.

2. It's not locked. Off you go!

1. I'm sorry.

2. Go home if you want to. Go on.

1. I'm sorry.

2. It's all right. I don't mind.

7.1.4. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

7.1.5. Read the dialogues in pairs.

7.1.6. Listen, look, say:

sir                            serve      surf         reserve world

fir            firm         first         early       girl

her          heard      hurt         certain curl

burr         bird         burst       birthday pearl

blur         term        learn       thirteen hurl

7.1.7. Listen, look, say:

1. Certainly, sir.

2. I've overheard the word.

3. I'll turn in early.

4. A worm will turn.

5. What a hurly-burly girl Urse is!

6. I'll see her further first!

7. The work will serve no purpose.

8. My girl has her bursts of work.

9. Why do Gert's dirty work for her?

10. Erna is a proverb and a byword.

7.1.8. Listen and look. Pay attention to the sound [ý].

I

1. What does Evan do?

2. I'm not certain. But he earns a lot. He           has money to burn.

1. And Bernard?

2. Oh, I prefer Bernard, of course, but...

1. What a superb furcoat, by the way.

2. As I say, I prefer Bernard, but...

1. And what beautiful pearls!

II

1. S-s-s. There's a burglar behind the curtain.

2. Are you certain. Bertha?

1. Don't disturb him. He might hurt us or worse he might even murder us.

2. But are you perfectly certain it is burglar?

1. Perfectly. Only a burglar would hide behind a curtain in that way.

2. Oh, Bertha, do you remember Percy Turner?

1. Sh-sh-sh. Gertrude! We're not the girls we were 30 years ago you know.

7.1.9. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

7.1.10. Read the dialogues in pairs.

7.1.11. Listen and look. Pay attention to the difference between [ö] and [ý].

I

1.             Something is burning.

2.             Oh, my buns!

1.             I love burnt buns.

2.             Curse this oven. Curse it!

1. But I prefer burnt buns.

2. It's the worst oven in the world.

1. Wonderful! A perfect bun, perfect!

2. Well, there are thirty of them. Have another.

1. U-m-m. Lovely!

II

1. I work for your brother's company.

2. Come and work for my company. How much money do you earn?

1. Five hundred a month.

2. You're worth another thirty.

1. I worth another hundred. But I mustn't leave your brother.

2. We'll discuss it on Thursday.

1. We have discussed it.

2. Six hundred?

1. Six hundred and thirty.

7.1.12. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intona­tion.

7.1.13. Read the dialogues in pairs.

* 7.1.14. Try to read the tongue-twister as fast as you can.

Robert Rowley rolled

a round roll round.

A round roll Robert

Rowley rolled round.

Where is the round roll

Robert Rowley rolled round?

roll (v.; n.) - катить: ролик

7.2. Word-building: -ary, -ory, -ous

7.2.1. Give Russian equivalents to the following adjec­tives and word combinations:

military, disciplinary, elementary, evolutionary, reactionary, legendary, traditionary, reformato­ry;

parliamentary democracy; secondary school, pri­mary school, monetary unit, satisfactory progress.

7.2.2. Give Russian equivalents to the following adjec­tives:

analogous, religious, famous, barbarous, danger­ous, numerous, humorous, scandalous, victorious.

7.2.3. Explain the meaning of the following word com­binations in English.

a mountainous country; a courageous boy; contin­uous rain; murderous blow; delicious cake; an anonymous gift.

7.3. Full understanding

7.3.1. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте:

procedure [pr@'sÖdZ@], session, throne, sovereign ['s@vrIn], debates, Speaker, Prime Minister, Lead­er of the Opposition, parliamentary.

*7.3.2. Look, listen, say, remember:

New words:

rule (n.) — правило, норма

occasion [@'keIZ(@)n] — случай

right (n.) — право

Queen — королева

to arrive — прибывать

independence — независимость

honour ['On@] — честь

duty — обязанность

dangerous ['deIndZr@s] — опасный

to preside [prI'zaId] — председательствовать

to decide — решать

vote (n. v.) — голос, голосовать

full — полный

particular — (зд.) специальный

School vocabulary:

already, beginning, set (n.), to send, to fol­low, speech, chair, equal, to believe.

*7.3.3. Прочитайте и переведите.

Steve's story

Steve has been telling his story for half an hour already. Would you like to listen to him? That's what he is saying:

«Many forms and rules of parliamentary procedure date back to the beginning of the sixteenth century.

People outside Great Britain believe that if they elect the man to sit in the Parliament he has a seat there. But the House of Commons has seats for only about two thirds of its members. Thus on great occasions when the House is full, members have to sit in the gangways. Only four members of the House of Commons have reserved seats: the Speaker, the Prime Minister, the Leader of the Opposition and the member who is in the Parliament for the longest unbroken period. Ministers sit on the front bench, but have no right to any particular seat there.

The Queen usually opens the new session of Parlia­ment. When she takes her seat on the throne she sends the official of the House of Lords, called Black Rod,1 to call the Commons. When he arrives at the door of the House of Commons they bang it in his face to show their independence. After this they follow Black Rod into the chamber of the House of Lords, where they stand while the Queen reads her speech. During the election of the Speaker, when he is going to his great chair at one end of the House, he struggles and pretends that he doesn't wish to accept the honour. This comes from the days when men were afraid to become the Speaker. It was because the sovereign and the House of Commons often quarrelled and the Speaker's duty of acting as go-between was both difficult and dangerous.

Nowadays the Speaker no longer takes part in debates as other members do. He presides over the debates and decides which member is to speak at any particular moment. Often several wish to speak and they stand up and try «to catch the Speaker's eye», as they call it. The Speaker doesn't take part in the debates, and he doesn't vote at the end of them. But if the Government and the Opposition gain an equal number of votes, then the Speaker has the casting vote.

1. Black Rod — «Черный жезл», герольдмейстер (постоянное должностное лицо в Палате лордов, во время церемоний несет черный жезл, титул существует с 1350 г.)

7.3.4. Можете ли вы догадаться, в каких ситуациях были сказаны следующие фразы? И кто их сказал?

1. I've been waiting for you for two hours already!

2. He's been walking near my house since morn­ing.

3. I'm afraid of this man. He's been watching me for half an hour.

4. I've been looking for him everywhere but still can't find.

5. It's the limit! You've been talking over the phone for 40 minutes!

6. I've been working here for 30 years and I know who's who.

7.3.5. Найдите в следующих диалогах Present Perfect Continuous. Почему автор воспользовался этим временем? Передайте эти шутки вашим друзьям по-русски.

1. — Look here, waiter, I've just found a button in my soup.

— Oh, thank you, sir. I've been looking all over for it.

2. Father: My dear, if you want a good husband, marry Mr Goodheart. He really loves you.

Daughter: How do you know that, Dad?

Father: Because I've been borrowing money of him for six months, and still he keeps coming.

7.3.6. Автор сделал несколько ошибок, используя Present Times. Помогите ему обнаружить их.

1. — Oh, here you are, at last! I wait for you for half an hour. What are you doing?

— I've been shopping. I've bought a new hat. Do you like it? I'm tired. I walk round the shops for nearly four hours.

2. — What have you been looking for?

— My keys.

— As a rule, you are carring them in your coat pocket.

— That's right, but they are not there.

— Oh, here they are. They are lying under your gloves all the time.

*7.3.7. Скажите по-английски:

1. Послушай! Анна поет в соседней комнате. Она поет очень хорошо. Она учится в консерватории уже 3 года. 2. Что вы пишете? — Я пишу письмо своей сестре. Мы часто пишем письма друг другу. Сейчас она работает над своей книгой. Она работает над ней уже несколько месяцев. 3. Что ты сейчас делаешь? — Я готовлюсь к семинару по истории госу­дарства и права. — По-моему, ты готовишься уже давно. — Да, этот семинар очень трудный. Я готовлюсь уже несколько часов. — Но обычно ты быстро готовишься. — Да, а вот к этому семинару я готовлюсь с трех часов.

7.3.8. Ваши друзья говорят о вещах, в которых, как вы думаете, вы разбираетесь лучше. Выскажите им свое мнение.

Model: A. The film... is very interesting.

В. But the film... is more interesting.

C. And the film... is the most interesting.

1. the book is good; 2. jazz-band is famous; 3. our hostel is beautiful: 4. this subject is interesting. 5. this man is tall; 6. our university is old.

7.3.9. Предположим, вы берете интервью у знаменитого актера (писателя, спортсмена). Постарайтесь использовать в своих вопросах степени сравнения.

Model: What was the most important event in your life?, etc.

7.3.10. Машинистка пропустила несколько слов в сле­дующих предложениях. Пожалуйста, воспол­ните пробелы, используя слова в скобках.

1. The House of Commons ... an important bill.

2. Each member ... for the proposal.

3. Everybody demanded ... for this state.

4. It was time...

5. He was elected ... at the meeting.

(independence, to preside, voted, to accept, to send, occasion, to act)

7.3.11. Что-то случилось с этими предложениями: все слова поменялись местами. Поставьте их в правильном порядке.

1. carefully acted very the Prime Minister.

2. member a vote the House of Commons in has each.

3. the young struggles its for independence state.

4. presides the House of Commons the Speaker in.

7.3.12. Хорошо ли вы помните текст этого урока? Можете вы закончить следующие предложения в соответствии с текстом, но не глядя в него?

1. Members of the House of Commons have to sit in the gangways because...

2. When Black Rod arrives to the door of the House of Commons it is banged into his face because...

3. The Speaker struggles when he is going to his great chair because...

4. The Speaker has the casting vote when...

*7.3.13. Вашему другу нужно пересказать текст этого урока, но одному ему не справиться. Ответьте на его вопросы: этим вы ему поможете.

1. Who has reserved seats in the Parliament?

2. Have the ministers right for reserved seats?

3. Who opens the session of the Parliament?

4. Where does the Queen send Black Rod?

5. Do the members of the House of Commons                follow Black Rod?

6. Why were the men afraid to become Speak­er?

7. What is the business of the Speaker nowa days?

8. Why do the members stand up and try «to catch the Speaker's eye»?

*7.3.14. Предположим, что вы — а) член британского парламента и выступаете перед группой иностранных студентов, рассказывая им о парламентской процедуре; б) Джон Кинг и пытаетесь вспомнить, что ваш отец говорил   вам о парламенте и его работе.

* 7.3.15. Скажите по-английски:

1. Премьер-министр действовал согласно правилам парламентской процедуры. 2. Оп­позиция боролась за право послать своих представителей на эту сессию. 3. Королева прибыла, чтобы произнести тронную речь. 4. Лидер оппозиции и премьер-министр об­суждают этот вопрос с самого утра.

7.4. Practice in communication

(Approval and Disapproval)

*7.4.1. Read and try to remember.

Somebody has done or is going to do something you approve or disapprove of. Here are some ways of expressing your feelings:

Approval

1. (That's) a good idea!

2. Wonderful! (Excellent, splendid).

3. Very wise (sensible) of you.

4. Well done!

5. Good for you!

6. I'm all for it!

7. That's it!

Disapproval

1. That's not a (very) good idea.

2. That's silly.

3. I'm all against it.

4. I wouldn't say I like it.

5. Rubbish!

7.4.2. Express your approval on disapproval of the following statement made to you by a close friend.

1. I'm going on a diet.

2. I'm going to learn Japanese.

3. We're going to get engaged.

4. I'm going to telephone the police.

5. I've bought a new car.

6. I've become a student.

7.4.3. Look, listen and then dramatize:

WIFE: I feel terribly bored. I'm going to take a Job.

HUSBAND: Good!

WIFE: Then I can buy my own car.

HUSBAND: Splendid!

WIFE: And pay for my own clothes.

HUSBAND: That's an excellent idea.

7.4.4. A friend of yours telephones to tell you of his/her plans for the summer holidays. You approve of some of the plans but not of others. Begin like this:

A. Hullo! I've decided to go to the seaside in July.

B. ...

7.5. General understanding

7.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 7)

1. The deaf old lady did not hear the knock, but Coke did. His heart began to pound wildly. He had to decide what to do, and quickly.

«There's someone at the door», he said loudly, but the old lady did not understand. «There's someone at the door», he said again, this time even more loudly than before. She went out of the room and Coke quickly stepped back into the shadows of the front room.

2. The old lady opened the front door. Coke could see her quite clearly, but nothing else. He listened carefully.

«Hello, Mrs Hartley. I'm from the village police station. The sergeant sent me. I've got something to tell you».

Then Coke saw the policeman very clearly. The old lady and the policeman came through the door into the sitting-room. Coke was behind the door, so the policeman couldn't see him.

«Good evening officer. Can I help you?» Coke said very loudly and clearly. The policeman turned around and looked at Coke. He was very surprised. Then Coke hit him hard as he could in the stomach and he fell to the floor heavily. The old lady screamed. The policeman tried to get up, but fell back weakly. Coke ran out of the room.

3. The phone rang about five minutes later at the local police headquarters. Hall answered it. «What? Coke? Where? When?» Baxter stood up as soon as he heard Coke's name. He quickly put his hat and coat on. Halls listened carefully to the voice on the other end and quickly made a few notes. Then he put the phone down and turned to Baxter. «Well, we know where Coke is now. A policeman almost caught him only five minutes ago».

«What do you mean, he almost caught him? Did he catch him or didn't he?» «No, he got away. He stole the policeman's bike».

7.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. When Coke heard the knock...

a) he calmly went to the door;

b) his heart began to pound wildly;

c) he took out his knife.

2. When Coke saw the policeman...

a) he decided to kill him;

b) he decided to use his knife;

c) he stepped back and waited.

3. When Coke hit the policeman...

a) the old lady screamed;

b) the policeman ran after him;

c) he didn't know what to do.

4. Baxter learnt that...

a) the policeman caught Coke;

b) Coke stole the policeman bike;

c) Coke hit the policeman.

7.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. Where did Coke hide?

2. What did Coke do when the policeman entered the room?

3. What did Halls learn on the phone?

4. What did Coke steal?

7.5.4. Make the plan of this episode in 3 sentences.

7.6. Scanning practice

7.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind.

1. How many members must be present at the session of the House of Commons?

2. When do most of the members of House of Lords appear in the House?

3. When must the members bow to the chair?

7.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

From Monday to Thursday the House of Commons, when in session, meets daily in the early afternoon. Most members of the House of Commons do not attend Parliament all the time it is in session, but at least 50 members must be present. If a member calls for a «Count» and fewer than this number are present, the House is adjourned.

The House of Lords meets on only three days a week, for hours. Not more than 100 peers take part in the regular work of the House. The rest of them appear only on ceremonial occasions.

There is a chair at the top of the House of Commons, in which sits Mr Speaker or his deputy when the House is in session. Every member entering or leaving the House is supposed to bow to the chair — not to the occupant, for the chair may be empty; still they must bow. Some members make quite a ceremony of it.

(161 words)

7.6.3. Answer the questions in 7.6.1. (Books closed.)

7.7. Listening practice

7.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after listening to the text.

1. How many countries has Elmar seen?

2. Why does he want a thousand dollars?

3. Whom has Elmar met?

4. How many rolls of films has he used?

7.7.2. Listen to the dialogue.

7.7.3. Answer the questions in 7.7.1.

7.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text.

missing — пропавший

curly — кудрявый, волнистый

7.7.5. Listen to the dialogue.Be ready to give the con­tents of it in Russian.

7.7.6. Tell the contents of the dialogue in Russian as close to the text as possible.

7.8. Time for fun

7.8.1. Read and then tell it in Russian. Believe it or not, but...

...when a masked man tried to rob the post office at Darley Abbey, Derbyshire, an official just threw a cup of hot tea in his face and the bandit fled.

...The governor of Indiana signed a law banning riding in a public bus for persons who have had a meal seasoned with garlic. The law breakers may be sentenced to confinement or a fine of 10 dollars.

? *7.8.2. And now try to solve this crossword.

ACROSS: 1. With anger. 6. The pronoun «we» in the objective case. 7. The number 1. 8. Prefix, meaning «against». 9. Antonym of «far». 11. To make use of the eyes. 13. A preposition. You can guess it from the following sentences: «The Mediterranean Sea is... Europe and Africa». «A river flows... its banks». 15. An antonym of «clever, bright». 16. To flow back from land to sea (speaking of the tide). 17. An enthusiastic supporter of a football team, for example. 18. In this (that) way; thus.

DOWN: 1. A sound or signal giving a warning of danger. 2. Destruction; serious damage. 3. The verb «to be» in the Present Indefinite, 3d person singular. 4. The reflexive and emphatic pronoun in the 2d person. 5. Making deaf, especially by a loud noise (the Present Parti­ciple). 10. Clever, showing knowledge or skill. 12. You will form the plural of «toot, goose, tooth» by replacing «oo» by these letters. 14. Napoleon lived on this island in 1814-1815.


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