UNIT 6 : Английский язык для юристов - Александр Яковлевич Зеликман : Книги по праву, правоведение

UNIT 6

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Фонетика: sounds [O], [þ]

Словообразование: суффиксы существительных -аnсе (-еnсе); -су, суффикс прилагательных -ful; конвер­сия.

Грамматика: прошедшее время Simple Past, насто­ящее совершенное Present Perfect, прошедшее время модальных глаголов. Текст: «John's composition»

6.1. Sound right

6.1.1. Listen, look, say:

on           off           sorry                       call

odd         ox            waffle                     golf

dog         clock       coffee                     sol

gone        loss        orange                    vol

fog           moth      opera                      loll

lob          want       horror                     Pol

lodge      watch     porridge polka

6.1.2. Listen, look, say:

1. Jog on.

2. What a swat!

3. Not for toffies!

4. Possibly not.

5. Upon my honour!

6. What a lot of nonsense!

7. John's dog got lost.

8. Hob and nob, Doc.

9. Poll's gone to the wrong shop.

10. Watch Dob's dog jump.

11. Will you be gone long, John?

12. Dot wants an office-job.

13. Dod's gone off to play golf.

14. Was it not possible to stop Tom?

15. Rod often got into hot water.

6.1.3. Listen and look. Pay attention to the difference between [O] and [ö]

I

1. T-s-s. The boss is on the bus.

2. But the boss doesn't come by bus.

1. Well, this is a bus and that's the boss.

2. Oh, yes at the front.

1. U-m-m. Next to Molly Monk.

II

1. What's wrong?

2. Nothing is wrong.

1. Something is wrong.

2. It's nothing much.

1. What's the trouble? Has John come?

2. U-m-m. Come and gone.

6.1.4. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the    intonation.

6.1.5. Read the dialogues in parts.

6.1.6. Listen, look, say:

or            awed         ought      all                         order

bore        board     bought    ball                         autumn

saw         sawed    support   hall                         author

thaw       thawed   thought   call                         daughter

tore         toward    taught     tall                          morning

6.1.7. Listen, look, say:

1. All aboard!

2. Draw in your claws.

3. All the more so.

4. To cut a long story short.

5. It's all your fault.

6. Forewarned is forearmed.

7. George always talks horse.

8. Cora adores small talk.

9. Gordon always puts the cart before the horse.

10. Norton is forcing an open door.

6.1.8. Listen and look. Pay attention to the difference between [э] and [э:].

I

                1. I've bought a dog, Polly.

                2. What sort of dog, Paul?

                1. Oh, just an ordinary dog, Polly.

                2. What's it called?

                1. Oh, it's got just an ordinary name.

                2. Is it called Spot?

                1. No-it's called ... Polly.

II

                1. It's a sort of hog, isn't it? But it's got four    horns!

                2. I caught it not far from the cottage, actually.

                1. Well, you ought to tell me what it is.

                2. It's a ... wart-hog.

                1. A wart-hog! Oh! Mm... er... And what will you call your wart-hog?

                2. I shall call it — Horace.

6.1.9. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

6.1.10. Read the dialogues in pairs.

* 6.1.11. Try to read the tongue-twisters as fast as you                can. Pay attention to:

1. the sound [þ]

Of all the saws I ever saw saw.         

I never saw a saw as this saw saws.

a saw — пила

to saw — пилить

2. the sound [O]

Mr Shott and Mr Nott agreed to fight a duel. Nott was shot and Shott was not, so it is better to be Shott than Nott. Shott and not Nott shot the shot that shot Nott. If the shot that Shott shot which shot Nott had shot Shott and not Nott, Shott instead of Nott would have been shot and Nott would not.

3. the difference between [O] — [ö]— [{]

Betty Botta bought a bit o'butter. «But», she said, «this butter's bitter. If I put it in my batter it will make my batter bitter». So Betty Botta bought a bit o'better butter and put it in her bitter batter, which made Betty Botta's batter a bit better.

bought (past) — to buy — покупать

a bit— немного

butter — масло

bitter — горький

batter — тесто

6.2. Word-building:

(-ance), (-cy), (-ful)

6.2.1. Give Russian equivalents to the following nouns with suffix -ance (ence):

preference, resemblance, resistance, patience, in­nocence, significance, difference, independence, influence, insurance.

6.2.2. Make nouns with suffix -cy. Give their Russian equivalents:

sufficient, frequent, efficient, constituent, su­preme, extravagant; agent, aristocrat, advocat.

6.2.3. Give antonyms to the following adjectives with suffix -less, using suffix -ful. Translate them into Russian:

meaningless, careless, cheerless, useless, thought­less, lawless, harmless, powerless, shameless, taste­less.

6.2.4. Answer the following questions:

1. Do you find physical exercises useful?

2. Does your father (mother) look youthful?

3. What thoughtful persons do you know?

4. Is the room you live in cheerful?

5. What sort of activities are wasteful?

6.2.5. Translate into Russian without using a dictionary.

1. No whys. There will be time for that later.

2. He promised to better himself.

3. He is always in the thick of things.

4. John has no say in the matter.

5. I don't know how to word it.

6. Sport is an excellent cure for my diseases.

6.3. Full understanding

6.3.1. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте:

composition, history, structure, basis, feudal ['fjüdl], capitalist, group, baron, aristocracy [{rIs'tOkr@sI], centre, real, to base, modern, fun­damental, to control [k@n'troul], forum, criticism, information.

Palace of Westminster, Britain, Saxon, Magna Carta, «Lords», «Commons», House of Com­mons, Cabinet. *6.3.2. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте, запомните:

New words:

to hold — проводить

to date back — относиться (к прошлому)

king — король

powerful — могущественный

to discuss — обсуждать

to argue ['a:gju:] — спорить

to sign [sam] — подписывать

to accept [@k'sept] — принимать

to support (er) — поддерживать (сторонник)

to defeat [dI'fÖt] — наносить поражение

in the middle of—в середине

development — развитие

armed forces — вооруженные силы

adviser — советник

difference — различие

division — разделение

to summon — созывать

growth — рост

School vocabulary:

change (n., v), century, to call, matter, to meet, mark, last, party, to bring.

*6.3.3. Прочитайте и переведите:

John's composition

Steve's son John was to write a composition about the History of Parliament. He has just finished it and asked his father to read it. Steve couldn't say «no» to his son. That's what he has read:

Britain has the oldest Parliament in the world. This institution has changed over the centuries and has reflect­ed the class structure and economic basis of feudal and capitalist societies.

Parliament is held in the Palace of Westminster. This tradition dates back to Saxon times when the king called to this place a group of powerful barons who discussed with him matters of state. The king often argued with them for his power and money. In 1215 King Henry III refused to accept Magna Carta. A group of powerful barons supported him. But Symon de Monfort defeated them and in 1265 called the first Parliament. From that time the king summoned Parliament and representatives of counties and cities together with the King's advisers from the clergy, and his supporters among the feudal barons met together. As the class differences between the representatives and aristocracy became more marked, the division into the «Lords» and the «Commons» took place.

In the middle of the last century the House of Commons was a centre of real political power. Since those days the growth of the power of the Cabinet, based on the development of the modern party system has brought about a fundamental change. The House of Commons is still the centre of the political stage; but it isn't the centre of the real political power. The House of Commons doesn't control the Cabinet, the civil service or the armed forces. It is in fact a forum for criticism of the Government and for getting the information.

6.3.4. Преподаватель просит вас или ваших друзей сделать что-либо. Откажитесь, сказав, что вы уже делали это в прошлом.

Model: Т. Discuss this story now (last week).

S. But we discussed it last week.

1. Bring me your note-book (yesterday). 2. Go to the theatre and see the new play there (the day before yesterday). 3. Let's read this new book by A. Christy (last year). 4. Send him the text-book by post (last Friday). 5. Sign the document at the dean's office (last week).

6.3.5. Петр Соколов написал это письмо Нелли, когда он был на каникулах. Но теперь, когда он вспоминает летние события, он должен расска­зать все это в прошедшем времени. Помогите ему в этом. Сделайте все необходимые измене­ния.

Dear Nell!

I'm in the country now at my grandmother's. I prepare for my entrance exams here. The place is very nice. I have a lot of friends here and meet them very often. We discuss different things and argue about new books and films. Sometimes we go to the river and swim there. But certainly most of the time I spend on my text-books. I prepare for my history exam now. I read about past centuries, learn the dates and facts about powerful parties, kings, their supporters and advisors. Sometimes when it is very hot I change my plans and go for a walk to the forest. I hope to come back to town very soon and see you again. I miss you very much.

Love, your Pete.

6.3.6. Преподаватель говорит, что вы или ваш друг совершили что-то в прошлом. Вы не соглаша­етесь, утверждая, что вы этого не делали.

1. You rang me up yesterday. 2. You went to the re-staurant last week. 3. You forgot to send the telegram. 4. You went shopping at 5 o'clock yesterday. 5. You brought some magazines to the lesson. 6. You bought a new car last month.

6.3.7. Ниже приводятся ответы одного подозреваемого. Можете вы догадаться, какие вопросы задавал его собеседник?

1. We signed this document yesterday at 5. 2. Yes, he accepted my help. 3. But I didn't change the date of this meeting. 4. I learnt some impor­tant facts about the armed forces of this country. 5. Yes, I had some supporters there. 6. I brought it last Tuesday.

*6.3.8. Скажите по-английски:

1. Вчера мы обсудили это дело и изменили свое решение. 2. В середине прошлого столетия кабинет министров не обладал реальной по­литической властью. 3. Группа представите­лей этой могущественной партии нанесла поражение партии аристократии спустя 2 года. 4. Не было явного различия между двумя капиталистическими партиями. 5. Несколько лет назад он контролировал развитие гражданской службы в стране. 6. Король отказался подписать этот документ вчера.

6.3.9. В своем сочинении Джон, сын Стива, использо­вал Simple Past 12 раз. Можете вы найти все эти случаи? Переведите эти предложения.

6.3.10. Ниже приводится диалог между Петром и Нелли. Прочитайте его и попытайтесь объяс­нить, почему они использовали в речи Present Perfect.

— Hello, Nell! I've brought something for you.

— Hi, Pete! What's that?

— Here you are.

— Oh! What a nice bunch of flowers! I love it! Thank you very much.

— And have you seen the new film? With that young actor... er ... I've forgotten his name

— No, not yet.

— Shall we go together?

— Oh, I'd love to. But how about the tickets?

— I've bought two for you and me.

— It's very kind of you. Thanks.

6.3.11. Вам нужно написать статью в студенческую газету о ваших друзьях и о том, как они проводят свое свободное время. Преподаватель будет задавать им вопросы, а вы попытайтесь суммировать их ответы. Эти вопросы помогут вам.

a) 1. How many times have you been to the theatre this month? 2. When did you go? 3. What did you see? 4. How did you like it?

b) 1. How often do you go to the country for the weekend? 2. How many times have you been there this month? 3. Did you go with your family? 4. How long did you stay there?

c) 1. Have you seen any interesting films this week? 2. When did you last see a good film?

d) 1. How many good books have you read this year? 2. Which of them did you like best? 3. Have you got enough time to read much?

e) 1. Have you read the paper today? 2. Do you usually read the paper before you go to college or when you get home after classes?

6.3.12. Вы сегодня в плохом настроении и отрицательно реагируете на все, что преподаватель говорит вам. Не забудьте употреблять Present Perfect и наречия already, yet, just, never.

Mode: Т. You must do this exercise now.

S. I've done it already.

1. You were in St.-Petersburg last year, weren't you? (never).

2. Why didn't you write the letter to your parents? (already).

3. I think you have asked all the questions (yet).

4. I saw you at the theatre yesterday (yet).

5. You say you haven't seen Bob for a long time (just).

6. I know your parents are away (already).

6.3.13. Автор спутал все случаи употребления Present Perfect и Simple Past в этом упражнении. Помогите найти ошибки и объясните их.

1. She has read a lot of books last year. 2. We didn't go to the theatre this month. 3. Did you have holiday this year?— Not yet. 4. What are your plans for summer? — I didn't think about it yet. 5. We've discussed some of these problems last time. 6. When have you bought this car? — Two years ago.

*6.3.14. Скажите по-английски:

1. Он уже принял наше приглашение. 2. Мы с ним никогда не встречались. 3. Они обсудили все дела вчера. 4. Король только что подписал этот документ. 5. Представитель кабинета отказался дать какую-либо ин­формацию о ядерных испытаниях. 6. Вы когда-нибудь слышали о палате общин как центре реальной политической власти? 7. Ко­го вы привели с собой?

6.3.15. Ваш друг говорит, что он может (должен) сделать что-либо, но вы знаете, что он мог (должен был) сделать это ранее. Скажите ему об этом.

1. I can play piano well. 2.I can't speak English at all. 3. I must buy tickets for you and me. 4. I must give up smoking. 5.I can go shopping to-day. 6. I mustn't say such things now.

6.3.16. Скажите вашему другу, какие 3 действия он должен был (не должен был) сделать и какие 3 действия ему положено было сделать ранее:

Model: 1. You didn't have to bring this text book.

2. You were to come to this meeting.

* 6.3.17. Скажите по-английски:

1. Мы обязательно должны были сделать все упражнения? — Нет, вы могли сделать первые три. 2. Моя дочь могла читать по-английски, когда ей было только шесть лет. 3. Я не мог пойти вчера в театр. 4. Они говорили со мной по-английски, и я сумел понять их! 5. У нас было мало времени, и мы должны были взять такси. 6. Я забыл сказать им о собрании, и мне пришлось им позвонить. 7. Я не смог перевести текст, потому что в нем было очень много новых слов.

6.3.18. Внимание! Проводим соревнование на звание лучшего переводчика! Первый этап соревнова­ния — устно перевести следующие предложе­ния (1 мин), затем закрыть книги и перевести эти предложения на английский язык.

1. The approval of the House of Commons isn't very important for the Government.

2. The representatives of both parties took part in the meeting.

3. The leaders of the party discussed their policy for the elections.

4. The supporters of the President are very powerful.

5. The main force of the Government is the Cabinet.

6. The House of Lords has no influence on the decisions of the Cabinet.

6.3.19. Следующий этап соревнования — вставить в предложения недостающие слова, используя следующий список:

1. ...of the state discussed important questions.

2. The Cabinet has the ... influence in the country.

3. Yesterday the discussion of ... questions of foreign policy took place.

4. Your ... of our decision isn't necessary.

5. This powerful group ... the policy of the state.

6. The king refused ... the delegation.

(to support, powerful, approval, representa­tives, to accept, fundamental).

6.3.20. Используя 6 слов (из списка в п. 6.3.19), составьте ваши собственные предложения или рассказ. Вы можете получить 1 очко за каждое правильное предложение + 2 очка, если они составят рассказ.

*6.3.21. Давайте посмотрим, насколько хорошо вы помните текст. Сможете ли вы ответить на следующие вопросы, не глядя в текст?

1. What do the changes of the Parliament reflect?

2. What does the tradition of holding the Parliament in Palace of Westminster date back to?

3. What was the history of accepting the Magna Carta?

4. Why did the division between «Lords» and «Commons» take place?

5. What was the House of Commons in the middle of the last century?

6. What has brought about the fundamental change?

7. What is the House of Commons now?

*6.3.22. Предположим, что вам надо написать сочинение об истории парламента (как Джону). Прежде всего вы должны составить план. Попробуйте сделать это сейчас.

*6.3.23. Вы уже написали свое сочинение, а ваш друг — нет, и он просит вас помочь ему. Расскажи­те ему в нескольких предложениях содержа­ние вашей работы.

6.4. Practice in communication

(Agreement or Disagreement)

*6.4.1. Read and try to remember:

Agreement

1. All right

2. OK      — Хорошо, ладно

3. Very well

4. I agree (with you)             — Согласен

5. Willingly            — Охотно

6. With pleasure   — С удовольствием

7. Of course

8. Sure    — Конечно

9. By all means

10. Agreed!           — Решено! По рукам

11. It's a go!           — Идет!

12. Quite so           — Совершенно верно

Disagreement

1. I'm of a different opinion

Я другого мнения.

2. This is out of the question

— Об этом не может быть и речи.

3. I object (to it)     - Я возражаю

4. No go!            — Ничего не выйдет

5. Nothing doing!

— Этот номер не пройдет!

6. Not for the world!  — Ни за что на свете!

7. Nothing of the sort — Ничего подобного

8. Why on earth!      — С какой стати!

9. I doubt in         — Сомневаюсь

6.4.2. Tell someone in the group that you think:

1. English food is excellent;

2. blondes are prettier than brunettes;

3. winter is nicer than summer;

4. fish is better than meat;

5. hard work is very pleasant.

Your partner will agree or disagree with you.

6.4.3. Look, listen and then dramatize:

1. Nell and Pete have just seen a film. He liked it. She didn't. They're close friends so they talk to each other casually.

P. Now, that really was a great film.

N. Nothing of the sort!

P. The best we've seen this year, surely.

N. I'm of a different opinion.

2. Jane and a friend of hers have also seen a film. They both liked it. They aren't close friends so they don't talk to each other very casually. Jane: I thought that quite a good film, didn't you?

Friend: Yes, I did. Quite so.

Jane:    It's one of the best that have come out this year, I think.

Friend: I quite agree with you.

6.4.4. Make any statement you like. Your partner will either agree or disagree with you.

Model: A. You'll be on duty to-day.

B. Why on earth!

6.5. General understanding

6.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 6)

1. «You know your clothes are in a terrible state», the old lady said after the meal. «My husband was just about your size. A little heavier perhaps. All his clothes are upstairs. They are no good to him. He died two years ago». She pointed up to the above them. «Why don't you see if any of his clothes fit you. You can bring them back tomorrow».

«Nobody can be this lucky!» Coke thought to himself. He went upstairs and turned the light on He found a heavy jacket, a woolen shirt and some trousers hanging in the room.

2. «What do you know about Coke?» Baxter asked Halls. They are in the car now. «Very little, I'm afraid. In fact, I don't think, I know anything about him at all. Wasn't he the fellow who was in that spy case about 4 years ago?»

«Yes, that's right. Coke always said it wasn't him... that it was someone else».

«That's what they all say. But what's so special about him?» «Coke was in Army Intelligence. He knew impor­tant secrets. We could never understand why he sold them. There wasn't a real motive. Some said he did it for money. We couldn't prove it, but if he was a spy, he still knows too much. We could never find out who he sold secrets to. That's why we have to catch him before he makes contact with any of his old friends!»

3. Coke put the clothes on as quickly as he could. They were old, but they were warm. When he came downstairs, the old lady was still in front of the fire. She smiled when she looked at him. «You know, you look just like my husband in those clothes... when he was much younger, of course». Coke tried to be polite. He wanted to leave quickly.

«I can't thank you enough. It's very kind of you to do all this for me». The old lady did not seem to hear him. «Just like my husband», she said again. Just then, there was a knock on the door.

6.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. Old woman's husband was...

a) a little lighter;

b) a little heavier;

c) of the same size.

2. The police wanted to catch Coke as soon as possible because...

a) he was in Army Intelligence;

b) he was a spy;

c) he could make contact with any of his old friends.

3. There was a knock at the door when...

a) Coke was upstairs;

b) Coke was talking with the old woman;

c) Coke was putting on the clothes.

6.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. What did the old woman offer to Coke?

2. What kind of clothes did Coke find?

3. What was Coke?

4. What couldn't the police prove?

5. Why do they want to catch him as soon as possible?

6. What did the woman say when she looked at Coke?

6.5.4. Express the main idea of this episode in 2-3 sentences.

6.6. Scanning practice

6.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind.

1. Who was murdered once?

2. Who guarded the body?

3. What did the king order to do with the body and the dog?

4. What did the dog do when he saw the murder­ers?

6.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

Crime Will Be Out Sooner of Later

Once during the civil wars of Rome a slave was murdered in one of the city squares, and nobody knew who committed the crime. The murdered slave's dog guarded the body and didn't allow anybody to touch it. The king, travelling that way, saw the animal watching the body. When he learnt that the dog had been there for three days without food or drink he ordered to bury the body and bring the dog to him.

After some time the review of the king's troops took place, and every soldier had to march past the king. All this time the dog lay quietly by the king's side, but on seeing the murderers of his late master, he flew at them with extraordinary fury barking and tearing their clothes. The king took notice of it. He ordered to make an inquest and the criminals confessed the crime. Later they were tried and sentenced to death.

(160 words)

6.6.3. Answer the questions in 6.6.1. (Books closed.)

6.7. Listening practice

6.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after listening to the text.

1. What famous people are there (their profes­sions)?

2. What is the first question of the professor?

3. Has he got any special diplomas?

4. What is he?

6.7.2. Listen to the dialogue.

6.7.3. Answer the questions in 6.7.1.

6.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text. give a big hand — поаплодировать

6.7.5. Listen to the story. Be ready to give the contents of it in Russian.

6.7.6. Tell the contents of the story in Russian as close to the text as possible.

6.8. Time for fun

6.8.1. Read and then tell it in Russian.

Believe it or not, but...

...The Port Fairy jail (Australia) was built by a Yorkshireman named Broadbent who celebrated its com­pletion so gaily that he became its first prisoner (1857).

...According to the laws adopted in several states (USA) women can easily divorce their husbands if they prove the men snore too loud at night.

? * 6.8.2. Fill in the six missing words.


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