UNIT 17 : Английский язык для юристов - Александр Яковлевич Зеликман : Книги по праву, правоведение


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Фонетика: sounds [r], [1]

Словообразование: сложные существительные ти­па housekeeper

Грамматика: перевод форм на -ed; функции строе­вых слов

Текст: «Pete and Nell go to the pictures»

17.1. Sound right

17.1.1. Listen, look, say:

free         present   three      very                        treat                        dream

friend      principal                 through                  sorry                       try                           dry

arrest      prisoner                 throw     quarrel                    true                         drew

shrill       problem thread    merry                      trade                       drive

shrewd   press      with right               for ever                  traffic                      dress

shrug      prove      with Rob                for instance           trolley                     drop

17.1.2. Listen, look, say:

1. Rack you brains.

2. Rora arrived on the stroke of three.

3. Try to reduce rule to practice.

4. There is neither rhyme nor reason in it.

5. Ruth is hungry for flattery.

6. Rod's eyes draw straws.

7. Rolf returned to his parents as right as rain.

8. Who won't be ruled by the rudder must be ruled by the rock.

9. Wben angry count a hundred.

10. Truth is stranger than fiction.

17.1.3. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the difference between the sounds [1] as long and [r] as wrong.

A. Have you got a lot of relations?

В. Millions.

A. Isn't that rather a lot, Roland? B. Well, I have got several—as you'll probably realize when you get the bill for the lunch.


A. Valerie, it was very wrong of you to be away so long. Mother's very worried.

B. I'm sorry. I'm late. But Larry's car broke down.

A. I don't really like Larry. Why not marry someone older—like Roland?

B. I don't love Roland, and I do love Larry.

A. But Ronald's got a lot of money.

B. Ronald's a fool.

A. Really, Valerie, you are terrible!

B. Why don't you marry Ronald, Laura?

17.1.4. Listen look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

17.1.5. Read the dialogues in pairs.

*17.1.6. Try to read the tongue-twister as fast as you can. Around the rugged rocks the ragged rascal ran.

17.2. Word-building

(Compound nouns)

17.2.1. Translate the following compound nouns:

holiday-maker, dog-owner, tea-drinker, gift-giv­er, New-Yorker, backbencher, two-wheeler, hair-. dresser, spacetraveller, baby-sitter, sleep-talker, lie-detector.

17.2.2. Finish the sentences using compound nouns:

1. One who saves money is called...

2. One who tells stories is called...

3. One who works full time is called...

4. The apparatus for recording sounds on the tape is called...

5. One belonging to the Third World is called...

17.2.3. Find in the right column the compound nouns corresponding to their definitions in the left column.

1. standing passenger on train,                         a) shop-walker,

bus who holds on to a strap                              b) pea-souper;

to steady himself;                                c) strap-hanger;

2. one employed in a large                                  d) sky-scraper;

shop to supervise assistants;                            e) good-looker;

3. thick yellow fog;                                              f) tongue-twister;

4. word or phrase difficult to                               g) day-boarder;

say quickly and correctly;                                  h) double-decker;

5. one who can fascinate an                               i) eye-opener;

audience;                                                               j) record-player;

6. a child who has lunch at                                 k) sit-downer;

school, but goes to sleep home;                       l) peace-campaigner.

7. a bus with seats on top;

8. an electrical instrument for playing records;

9. a very tall building;

10. one who takes part in a sit-down strike;

11. one who takes part in a peace campaign;

12. a handsome person.

17.3. Full understanding

17.3.1. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте:

scene [sÖn], to arrest [@'rest], press, absurd [@b'sýd], medical, expert, final [faInl], minute, laboratory.

                Proper names:

                Agatha Christy ['{g@T@ 'krIstI]; Sir Wilfred ['wIlfr@d]; Leonard Stephen Vole ['len@d stÖvn voul]; Mr Mayherne ['meIhýn]; Mrs Emily French ['emIlI]; Christine ['krIstÖn]; Janet Mackenzie [³{nIt m@'kenzI].

* 17.3.2. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте, запомните:

New words:

to invite — приглашать

on the charge — no обвинению

day off — выходной

to catch (caught) — (зд.) попасть

circumstantial evidence ['sýk@ms't{nS@l evId@ns] — косвенные улики

to plead a case [pliÖd] — защищать дело в суде

principal suspect — основной подозреваемый

prisoner's box — место обвиняемого

jury box — места присяжных

indictment [In'daItm@nt] — обвинительный акт

to take an oath [ouT] — давать клятву

testimony ['testIm@nI] — свидетельские показа­ния

to introduce — (зд.) представлять

to prove [prüv] — доказывать

death [deT] — смерть

to cause [kþz] — вызывать, быть причиной

will (n.) — завещание

cross-examination— перекрестный допрос

silly— глупый

to preside — председательствовать

School vocabulary:

night, dead, head, October, heavy, to find.

* 17.3.3. Прочитайте и переведите:

Pete and Nell go to the pictures

One day Pete phoned Nell and invited her to the pictures. «What film are we going to see?» — she asked. «Oh, it's the one based on the famous Agatha Christie's novel «Witness for the prosecution». «OK, We'll meet near the cinema at 7».

And would you like to join them and see the film? I'm sure you would. So here are some scenes from the script of the film.

Scene I

(The office of Sir Wilfred, one of the finest and most experienced barristers in London. Leonard Vole, a hand­some young man of about thirty and Mr Mayherne, his solicitor come to the office. Mr Mayherne urges Sir Wilfred to take the case of Leonard Vole, who may be arrested any minute on the charge of murdering Mrs Emily French. Mrs French, a wealthy widow, was murdered two days ago. She left 80,000 to Leonard Vole, who had visited Mrs French earlier in the evening on the night of the murder).

MAYHERNE: It's the case of Mrs Emily French. You've probably seen the reports in the press. When the housekeeper returned from her day off, she found her mistress dead, struck on the back of the head and killed.


MAYHERNE: I'm sure Vole is harmless chap caught in the web of circumstancial evidence.

VOLE: I haven't murdered anybody. It's absurd! But my wife Christine thought I might need a lawyer. That's why I went to see Mr Mayherne. But now I have two lawyers. It's rather silly, don't you think?

MAYHERNE: Vole, I am a solicitor. Sir Wilfred is a barrister. Only a barrister can plead a case in court. Mr Vole, isn't it obvious to you that you will be regarded as the principal suspect in this case? I'm very much afraid you'll be arrested.

Scene II

(Mr Vole is arrested and now he's in the prisoner's box in one of the courtrooms of the Old Bailey. It is the first day of Vole's trial. The court is in session. The judge is presiding. The jury, consisting of nine men and three women are in the jury box. The counsels for the Prosecu­tion and Defence are in their seats.)

COURT CLERK: Leonard Stephen Vole, you are charged on indictment that you on the 14-th day of October in the County of London murdered Emily Jane French. How say you, Leonard Stephen Vole, are you guilty or not guilty?

VOLE: Not guilty.

JUDGE: Members of the jury, by the oath you have just taken you swore to try this case on the evidence. (To the prosecutor.) You may proceed for the prosecution, Mr Myers.

MYERS (rising): The facts in this case are simple. You will hear how the prisoner made the acquaintance of Mrs Emily French, a woman of 56, how he was treated by her with kindness. Medical testimony will be introduced to prove that death was caused by a blow from a blunt and heavy instrument and it is the case for the Prosecution* that the blow was made by the prisoner Leonard Vole!

VOLE: That's not true! I didn't do it!

MYERS: Among the witnesses you will hear police evidence, also the one of Mrs French's houskeeper Janet Mackenzie, and from the medical and laboratory experts, and the evidence of the murdered woman's solicitor, who drew up her final will.

(The prosecutor proceeds with examination of his witnesses, but cross-examination by Sir Wilfred makes their evidence look rather weak.)

(You'll read the end of the story in the next Unit.)

1. It is the case for the Prosecution — (зд.) обвинение утверждает.

17.3.4. В тексте есть 20 слов, оканчивающихся на -ed.

Можете ли вы определить, в какую группу из 4 групп поместить эти слова?

1                                              2                              3                               4

Past Indefinite      Perfect Forms                        Passive Forms      Participle II

17.3.5. Петр затрудняется в определении форм с суффиксом -ed. Ему дали несколько предло­жений с такими словами и, когда он пытался распределить их по группам (см. п. 17.3.4), он сделал несколько ошибок. Помогите ему.

1                                                                               2

a) The USA has lost the in-                a) The man has created the

dustrial dominance it en-    new unusual robot.

joyed after World War II.

b) Senator Brown's bill

hasn't been adopted.

3                                                                              4

a) The programme adopted                a) The revolution abolished

by Parliament was a new     the landlord system and

stage in the development   handed over all the land

of the country.                                      to the peasants.

b) New branches of nation-                b) When invited, he always

al economy have been                        agrees to come.

created in developing


* 17.3.6. Скажите по-английски:

1. Опытный юрист был приглашен защищать дело в суде. 2. Он доказал, что беспокойство, причиненное соседям, было не столь уж велико. 3. Когда его арестовали, он попросил адвоката. 4. Смерть наступила (была вызва­на) в результате удара тупым и тяжелым предметом. 5. Суд под председательством главного судьи продолжил работу. 6. С за­ключенным обращались очень сурово.

17.3.7. В тексте вам встретилось несколько раз слово «one» в разных значениях, в частности, когда оно выполняло функцию заменителя сущест­вительного. Найдите слова «one» в этой функции.

17.3.8. Петр утверждает, что в следующих пред­ложениях слово «one» только дважды вы­ступает в роли заменителя существительного. Вы согласны с ним? Определите другие фун­кции слова «one» в этих предложениях.

1. One might say that at the end of World War II the United States was the only strong capitalist country with most of the gold reserves.

2. The problems of the defence in this case are big ones.

3. One cannot exclude the possibility that they will use their missiles deployed on other countries' territory to deliver the first nuclear strike.

4. In this colonial country there were no indus­tries except for a few unimportant local ones.

17.3.9. Предположим, что вы очень заняты и не можете тратить время на разыскивание кое-каких необходимых вам предметов. Попросите ваше­го друга помочь вам. Используйте диалог-модель и слова в скобках.


MAN: Give me a book please, Jane.

WOMAN: Which book? This one?

MAN: No, not that one. The red one.

WOMAN: This one?

MAN: Yes, please.

WOMAN: Here you are.

MAN: Thank you.

(NOUNS: bottle, box, cup, fork, knife, spoon, glass. ADJECTIVES: blunt, empty, full, large, sharp, etc.)

17.3.10. Какая группа составит больше предложений со словом «one» за 5 мин?

*17.3.11. Перед вами еще одно секретное послание агента своему боссу. Попытайтесь расшиф­ровать его.

4,12,5 4,16,1,11,14 13,1,14,14 15,5,21,1,2 4,8,7,8,16,16,8,13 1 11,7 11,20,16,11,1,10 7,9 21,17,1,14,4 13,1,14,14 15,5 18,16,8,3,5,10 1 10,8 2,8,4 6,5,5 4,12,5 13,11,9 8,17,4

1,2,3,1,4,5 — ask smb. to come somewhere

4,5,6,4,1,7,8,2,9 - declaration that smth. is true

10,5,11,4,12 - ending of life

13,1,14,14— statement in writing saying how smb. wishes his property to be distributed after his death

14,1 1,15,8,16,11,4,8,16,9 - room or building used for scientific experiments

6,17,6,18,5,19,4 — person who may be guilty

20,1,2,10 — get or discover after search

19,12,11,16,21,5 - accusation

17.3.12. В то время, когда Нелли и Петр смотрели фильм, что-то случилось со звуком. Зрители слышали только начало нескольких фраз. Помогите им и закончите фразы. Не смотрите в сценарий!

1. Vole is a harmless chap caught in the web of ...

2. Only a barrister can...

3. How say you, Leonard Stephen Vole, are you...

4. Members of the jury, you swore...

5. Medical testimony will be introduced...

17.3.13. Петру так понравился фильм, что он решил пересказать его содержание своим друзьям, но, кажется, кое-что перепутал. Найдите ошибки в его рассказе.

Leonard Vole with his barrister came to the solicitor and asked him to help him in his case. He had visited an old woman who was found murdered soon after his visit. She had left much money to him. He is regarded to be the murderer and is arrested. At the trial he pleads guilty. The prosecuting counsel says that the murdered woman Mrs French was treated by Vole with kindness. He also mentions that the death was caused by a blow of a sharp knife. He examines his witnesses. Sir Wilfred makes his cross-examinations but without any success.

* 17.3.14. Когда коллеги Нелли узнали, что она видела фильм «Свидетель обвинения», они засыпали ее вопросами об этом фильме. Предположите, что кто-нибудь из вас — Нелли, а все остальные — ее коллеги. Какие бы вопросы вы ей задали? Пусть она постарается ответить на них.

*17.3.15. Вы решили поставить первую часть «Свидетеля обвинения». Но прежде чем взяться за постановку, необходимо выде­лить основные события, происходящие в этой части. Попробуйте сделать это сейчас.

* 17.3.16. А теперь распределите роли и попытайтесь представить свой вариант «Свидетеля обви­нения». Работайте группами.

* 17.3.17. Скажите по-английски:

1. Он признал себя виновным. 2. Его судили за убийство. 3. Он был первым свидетелем, который дал показания. 4. Их судили по обвинению в краже со взломом. 5. Последний свидетель представил только косвенные улики преступления. 6. Он попытался до­казать, что смерть была вызвана не его действиями. 7. Он был обвинен по обви­нительному акту об убийстве. 8. На пере­крестном допросе было доказано, что заве­щание было составлено под давлением со стороны обвиняемого.

17.4. Practice in communication


*17.4.1. Here are some questions which can be asked at the Customs Office. Read them and try to remember:

1. Where are you travelling?

2. Why are you going there?

3. How long are you going for?

4. How much money are you taking?

5. Who are you travelling with?

6. Whose luggage is this?

7. What have you got to declare?

8. Have you got anything to declare?

17.4.2. Read the dialogue and then dramatize it. Mr. Brown was stopped by the police because he was driving too fast on a London road.

POLICE: Why didn't you stop when we first signalled?

DRIVER: Did you signal more than once, then?

POLICE: What do you think? Of course we did. Only you didn't see us because you were speeding. That's why.

DRIVER: Was I? I'm sorry about that. What's the speed limit on this road?

POLICE: Don't you know? 60 kph.

DRIVER: Was I doing more than that, then?

POLICE: What do you think? Of course you were. You were doing more than 80 kph.

DRIVER: Was I? I'm sorry about that.

POLICE: I'm afraid I shall have to charge you with an offence under the Road Traf­ fic Act.

DRIVER: Will I have to pay a fine? Will I have my licence endorsed?

POLICE: That's for the Court to decide.

Note: 60 kph — kilometers per hour — (столько-то) километров в час

17.4.3. The Magistrate questions Mr Brown at Court. He asks him:

1. what his name/address is;

2. if he is the owner of a vehicle, registration number NLD 782K;

3. if he was driving at 80 kph on the night of 9 April 19... down Lyndale Avenue;

4. whether he has anything to say in his own defence.

17.5. General understanding

17.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 17)

1. Once, a long time ago, someone had told him that an Army training was useful in many ways. Coke knew now that that was true. There was a drainpipe at the back of the garage that led to the roof, and Coke managed to climb up it. He had often done such things in the army.

There was a window in the roof, or a sky-light, as it is called. It was closed but not locked. Coke managed to get it open and peered down into the dark garage below. There was a lorry parked almost directly underneath. He jumped down onto it. It was completely dark inside the garage itself.

«Masters told me the secrets were kept in the office, but where's the office?» he wondered. Suddenly he heard a sound behind him, and realised he was not alone in the garage.

2. Before he could turn around, someone grabbed him from behind and someone else shone a powerful light into his eyes. He was blinded. Then there was an explosion of pain in his head. He realised, just before he lost consciousness, that what had happened in Epping Forest was happening to him all over again.

When he came to again, he was lying on the floor of the garage. It was at least an hour later. He heard loud voices. When he opened his eyes, he saw Kate tied to a chair. Four men were standing above him. One of them was Masters, looking pale and frightened. He was listening to a short blond man. Coke knew it must be Hugo himself. Hugo was shouting.

«I told you you were a fool... and idiot! Do you believe me now?» he demanded. Masters tried to say something but could not. Hugo slapped him across the face. «I asked you if you believed me now?» he shouted.

3. «But... but Hugo. PI ... please listen to me!» Masters stammered. «I told you someone had phoned me and had asked me to look at some pistols! I told you it was an old, blind man but you said there was nothing to worry about!» Masters said.

«No, I didn't. I asked you what you wanted me to do about it, you idiot!» Hugo roared. Suddenly, one of

the other men interrupted. «What did you say we were going to do with the girl and Coke?» he asked.

«I said we were going to kill them! And I said we were going to do the job properly this time!» Hugo answered.

17.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. Coke managed to get into the garage because...

a) there was a drainpipe at the back of the garage;

b) there was a sky-light which was not locked;

c) there was a lorry beneath.

2. When he came to himself he saw:

a) Masters shouting at a short blond man;

b) short man shouting at Kate;

c) short man crying at Masters.

3. Hugo said that they were going...

a) to kill Coke and Kate;

b) to kill Coke and Masters;

c) to beat the girl and Coke.

17.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. How did Coke manage to get into the garage?

2. What happened to him there?

3. What did he see when he came to himself?

4. What was Hugo going to do with Coke and Kate?

17.5.4. Try to tell the main events of this extract in 3-4 sentences.

17.6. Scanning practice

17.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them in mind.

1. What is a barrister according to Mr Staughton?

2. What does the phrase «With respect» really mean?

3. What does the judge want?

4. What does the judge say about some words?

17.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

Judge's «respectful» plea for plainer English

A barrister is a man born with a silver spoon in his mouth in place of a tongue. Or so it would appear to Mr Justice Staughton, a judge in the Commercial Court.

The learned judge has become irritated at the linguistic duplicity of counsel, and the way in which they use archaic words to camouflage what is at bottom, an insult.

Writing in the current edition of the quarterly legal journal «Counsel», a learned magazine read by upper echelons of the legal profession, the judge tells about barristers who preface a statement to him with the phrase «With respect». What that really means, says the judge, is «you are wrong».

A statement prefaced with the words «With great respect» means «you are utterly wrong». And if a barrister produces the ultimate weapon of «With utmost respect» he is really saying to the court, «Send for the men in white coats».

The judge wants more plain English used in courts, and less of the legal language of the obscure past, some of which he says has been «obsolete» in ordinary speech almost since the Bible.

Words like «humbly» and «respectfully» are not only unnecessary in written legal documents, they are gener­ally untruthful in oral argument, says the judge with utmost respect.

Judges themselves are, of course, not entirely free of guilt in the matter of exchanges which are not very understandable.

As the courtroom clock moves towards 1 pm, counsel might say: «It might be of value to your Lordship if I were to inform you at this juncture that I have several more questions to ask of to this witness which would take some little while». The judge will reply: «This seems a useful time to adjourn». What they really mean is lunch.

17.6.3. Answer the questions in 17.6.1. (Books closed.)

17.7. Listening practice

17.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after reading the text.

1. When did they have school?

2. When did Herbert Berk become politician?

3. What is James Steven?

4. Where is he now?

5. What did Charlie Philipps give to Mary Foot when they left school?

6. When did they get married?

7. Where did they move to?

17.7.2. Listen to the story.

17.7.3. Answer the questions in 17.7.1.

17.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text. twin — близнец

diverge — отличаться adolescence — юность adulthood — взрослость strive — бороться compliment — дополнять clash — сталкивать sheer — простой deliberately — специально quirk — причуда

17.7.5. Listen to the story. Be ready to give the contents of it.

17.7.6. Tell the contents of the story as close to the text as possible.

17.8. Time for fun

17.8.1. Read and translate the following joke:

The excessive bill

Once a man received an exorbitant bill for legal services. He considered the amount excessive, so he went right to the lawyer's office. The conversation went like this:

Client: Is this really my bill?

Lawyer: Isn't this your name on the bill?

C.: Yes.

L.: Who handled it?

C.: One of your secretaries. The tall one with blonde hair and...

L.: Yes, yes. Miss Thompson. She's very accurate. There's no doubt that the bill is correct.

C.: But this is too much for the service I received from your office. I didn't even have the professional services of a real lawyer.

L.: That doesn't have anything to do with it. Here the charge is the same, whether I do the work person­ally or a secretary takes care of a routine matter such as yours.

C.: But... but it's too much!

L.: Sir, you take care of your business and I'll take care of mine!

C.: Obviously you don't know who I am!

L.: And who are you, sir?

C.: Now I understand this exorbitant bill.

L.: What do you mean?

C.: Simply that I belong to the same profession as you do.

L.: Oh, well! Then there was an oversight. My secretary didn't make a note of that fact. I'm very sorry

about the mistake.

C.: Oh, that's all right. It could happen to anyone.

L.: So you're a member of my profession, eh? Well, in that case, I'll give you a discount of seventy-five


C.: That's better! Now that bill is for a reasonable sum, I'll pay it right away. Here's the money.

L.: Thank you very much. I hope that you'll forgive this mistake.

C.: Naturally. After taking the money, the lawyer sees his client to the door with great respect and courtesy, and says:

L.: But tell me, friend, where is your office?

C.: Oh, I don't have an office.

L.: But you just told me that you had the same profession as I do.

C.: Yes, I did. I'm a thief too!

17.8.2. Can you complete each sentence in the first list with the appropriate phrase from the second?

1. The telephone operator                  A. lack of hard work

put through                                                           B. by their younger brothers

2. I have out by                                                    or sisters

3. She was dreadfully put                   C. his shoulder, playing

out                                                                          Rugby

4. If it rains we shall                                             D. enough money for a win-

have to put off                                                      ter holiday

5. How can you put up                                        E. your address before I

with                                                                        forget it

6. George has put out                                          F. the barbecue in the gar-

7. I must put down                                               den tonight

8. We would be happy to                   G. the noise and fumes of

put you up                                                            town life

9. We put his failure                                            H. I shall stop smoking

down to                                                                 I. by his unkind remarks

10. If cigarettes are put up                  J. if you would like to stay

11. Older children are                           the night

often put upon                                                     K. a warm jumper and hea-

12. When he began to                         vy coat

shiver he decided to                                            L. the call from London

put on