UNIT 15 : Английский язык для юристов - Александр Яковлевич Зеликман : Книги по праву, правоведение

UNIT 15

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РЕКЛАМА
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Фонетика: sounds [³], [Z], [D]

Словообразование: суффикс прилагательных -ive

Грамматика: согласование времен, косвенная речь

Текст: «Steve tells about judicial profession in Eng­land»

15.1. Sound right

15.1.1. Listen, look, say:

joy          large                       agent                      charged

joke         bridge                     major                      aged

juror        badge                     pages                     huge Jack

jam          edge                       a jam                       large jar

job          age                          page nine               stage-conscious

junior      barge                      tell Jack  Judge Johnson

15.1.2. Listen, look, say:

1. Justice's justice.

2. Meet John Jones junior.

3. June is a prodigy of energy.

4. John arranged your journey to Japan.

5. Don't bear Joan a grudge because she mis­judged you.

6. June marriage's lucky.

7. Don't jest with edged tools.

8. James joined geography society.

9. Just imagine Jim learning the German lan­guage.

10. Be just before you are generous.

15.1.3. Listen and look. Pay attention to the sound [³] as in judge.

I

A. That judge had a grudge against George.

В. Judges aren't allowed to have grudges.

A. Well, that judge had a grudge.

B. So he sent George to gaol.

A. Poor George!

B. And poor Jill!

A. Jill? His wife's called Jacqueline!

B. Poor Jacqueline!

II

A. In just a few hours we do the next part of the journey by plane. So jump into bed and get some rest, John.

B. Will it be a jet, uncle Jim?

A. Probably a jet.

B. A jumbo jet?

A. Mm—probably. Well, good night, John.

B. Just think! A jumbo jet. Uncle!

A. Good night, John.

B. Zooooooom!

A. Sleep tight, John.

15.1.4. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intona­tion.

15.1.5. Read the dialogues in pairs.

15.1.6. Listen and look. Pay attention to the difference between the sounds [Z] as in measure, [D] as in this, [³J as in job, [s] as in yes.

I

A. This is a job for you to do.

B. What time?

A. The usual time.

B. Where?

A. The usual, place.

B. Is it dangerous?

A. I imagine so—these jobs usually are.

B. Yes...

A. Enjoy yourself.

B. Thank you very much.

A. Always a pleasure.

B. Hm!

A. And now, if you don't mind, I have             another engagement, so, er ... see you later ... per­haps!

II

A. You measured me in July, Mr Jennings.

B. Yes, sir. But I'd rather measure you again... Oh, yes — just a small adjustment here, sir.

A. So my bulge is getting larger. It's ... middle age!

B. It's only a small adjustment, ".ir. A. That's what you said when you measured me in July.

15.1.7. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intona­tion.

15.1.8. Read the dialogues in pairs.

15.2. Word-building

15.2.1. Make adjectives with the help of suffix -ive:

collect, attract, create, demonstrate, execute, negate.

15.2.2. Translate the following word-combinations:

conservative party, productive work, expensive clothes, defensive measures, progressive policy, administrative building, affirmative answer.

15.3. Full understanding

15.3.1. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте:

legal ['lÖg@l], document, standard corporation, verdict ['výdIkt], proceeding [prou'sÖdIÎ].

* 15.3.2. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте:

New words:

solicitor [s@'lIsIt@] — поверенный

to give advice — давать совет

to pass an exam — сдать экзамен

junior [djünj@] — младший

councel ['kauns(@)l] — советник

plaintiff ['pleIntIf] — истец

defendant — ответчик

age — возраст

juror ['dju@r@] — присяжный

guilty ['gIltI] — виновный

to appoint — назначать

to examine — (зд.) изучать

to add — добавлять

guest — гость

probably — вероятно

School vocabulary:

to be glad, necessary.

* 15.3.3. Прочитайте и переведите:

Steve tells about judicial profession in England

«... Well, you've told us many interesting things about English law and courts, but you didn't tell anything about lawyers» — Nell said. «Oh, I like your being so inquis­itive and I'm glad I can give you all the necessary information», Steve answered. Then he said that there were two classes of lawyers — Barristers and Solicitors. And when Pete asked him what the difference was between them Steve explained that solicitors were law­yers who took legal business for ordinary people. «You know, that I'm the solicitor myself. So as a rule my business is to give advice to non-professional clients and to prepare all the necessary documents for the barrister. It's the barrister who conducts the case in the higher courts». Nell asked if barrister had some educational standard. «Yes», Steve answered. A barrister must pass the special legal exams and become a member of a legal corporation called «Inn of Court». Pete said that he had learnt about four Inns of Court when he had been in London. «But probably you don't know that barristers are either «juniors» or «King's (Queen's)» Steve said. When a barrister becomes O.C. he «takes silk». It means that he can wear a silk gown. Participating in a trial, a barrister may be counsel for the plaintiff (counsel for the prosecu­tion) or counsel for the defendant (counsel for the defence)». «I've heard so much about English jury. What are their duties?» Nell asked. «All serious crimes are tried in a superior court before a jury. Most men and women between the ages of 21 and 60 can be jurors. According to English law the jury is to return only one of two verdicts — Guilty or Not Guilty». Then Pete asked whether they elected judges in England. «No, the judges are appointed from the barristers. The judge's functions are to conduct the proceedings, put questions to the parties and witness­es, examine the documents and evidence and to pass the sentence (judgement)».

«Well, and now I think it's my turn to ask questions», Steve added. But Pete and Nell said that they would gladly answer all the questions of their guests, but next day, because it was too late.

15.3.4. В тексте есть 8 случаев употребления согласо­вания времен. Найдите их.

15.3.5. Прочитайте следующую шутку и скажите, уда­лось ли автору избежать ошибок в согласо­вании времен.

Presence of mind

A fire broke out in the middle of the night in a country house where a number of guests had been staying. Now they were all standing outside wrapped up in shawls, sheets and blankets. One of the guests was the last to join the crowd. He said he is not at all excited and didn't loose his usual presence of mind in spite of danger. He drew everybody's attention to the fact that he had not only put on his shirt and tie but even found time to fetch his pipe and his tobacco-pouch. The other guests were full of admiration and praised his self-possession. Only one of them wondered why together with shirt and tie he didn't put on his trousers.

15.3.6. Преподаватель приводит некоторые факты в отношении студентов вашей группы. Но вы не удивлены, вы все это знали. (Не забудьте о согласовании времен.)

Model: I. Bill Has passed his exam.

S. I' knew Bill had passed his exam.

1. Helen likes to give advice.

2. Steve is a good solicitor.

3. Bob examined the scene of the crime very carefully.

4. John was glad to meet his girl-friend.

5. Tommy worked at his English very hard yesterday.

6. Irene will get married next Friday.

7. Vie will get a nice present tomorrow.

8. Henry lost all his money.

15.3.7. Скажите по-английски:

. 1. Он был очень рад, что вы пришли. 2. Поверенный знал, что у истца нет необходимых документов. 3. Ответчик был уверен, что он прав. 4. Мистер Блэк знал, что его назначат судьей. 5. Она сказала, что уедет завтра. Затем она добавила, что ей здесь очень понравилось. 6. Я был уверен, что ответчик виновен.

15.3.8. У вашего преподавателя что-то случилось с голосом и он не может громко говорить. Помогите ему, повторяя его распоряжения. (Используйте косвенные приказания.)

Model: Т. Peter, go to the door.

S. He told Peter to go to the door.

15.3.9. Теперь у вас что-то случилось со слухом. Вам не удается расслышать, что преподаватель спрашивает. Попросите друга помочь вам.

Model: Т. Do you like this book?

S1. What did he ask?

S2. He asked if you liked this book?

S1. Oh, yes, I do.

1. Did you go to the cinema yesterday? 2. Have you read this book? 3. Are you a good sportsman? 4. Can you speak Italian? 5. Did you see Helen yesterday? 6. Have you finished your work? 7. Are you listening to me? 8. Were you abroad last year?

15.3.10. Стив пришел к вам в группу побеседовать с вами. Но он не совсем хорошо понимает ваши вопросы и поэтому кто-нибудь из вас должен помочь ему.

Model: S1. Where do you work? STEVE: What did he ask?

S2 He asked where you worked.

*15.3.11. Прочитайте следующие шутки и затем попы­тайтесь пересказать их вашим друзьям. Избегайте употреблять прямую речь.

1. A young man introduced his friend, a well-known comedian, to his aunt, an old lady. Trying to be witty he said, «This is a friend of mine, the famous K. and he is not such a fool as he looks». «Indeed, madam», said the comedian, «and that is the great difference between me and your nephew».

2. Once a young man applied for a job to the manager of a circus. The following dialogue took place between the two.

«What is your name and what can you do?»

«I'm John Brown, the egg-king, for I can eat six dozen eggs at a single sitting».

«Do you know that we give four shows every day?»

«Well, four shows will fetch more money than one!»

«Do you think you can perform four times a day?»

«I have no doubt whatever about it».

«But on holidays we shall try to manage a show every hour!»

«In that case one thing must be settled before I sign a contract».

«Namely?»

«No matter how many shows you give a day, I must have time to go out and have my dinner».

* 15.3.12. Скажите по-английски:

1. Джим сказал, что не любит бокс. 2. Том спросил, где я купил учебник. 3. Мистер Браун спросил, готов ли обед. 4. Мы не понимали, почему он рассердился на нас. 5. Они не знали, какую музыку предпочитает Роджер. 6. Я не знал, пригласила ли моя жена мистера Моргана. 7. Мы спросили детей, обедали ли они. 8. Мы хотели узнать, в каком часу прибывает поезд. 9. Джейн сказала, что живет теперь в общежитии. 10. Роберт спросил, дома ли Генри.

* 15.3.13. В Великобритании есть два класса юристов: адвокаты и поверенные. Нелли не совсем понимает разницу между ними. Объясните ей эту разницу, пожалуйста.

BARRISTERS     SOLICITORS

1......................      1. .....................

2......................      2......................

* 15.3.14. Попытайтесь разгадать это шифрованное послание агента его боссу.

15.3.15. В следующих предложениях не хватает не­которых слов. Автор собрал все недостающие слова, но не знает, куда поместить их. По­могите ему сделать это.

1. I am so ... I have ... ...!

2. I've got all the ... things here.

3. All the ... have come already.

4. He was ... the ... for the defence.

5. The ... has won the case.

counsel, appointed, necessary, passed an exam, glad, jurors, plaintiff.

15.3.16. Прочитайте историю об адвокате м-ре Смите. Автор сделал в ней 3 ошибки. Найдите их.

Mr Smith is going to take silk. For this he has to pass special legal exams. Then he'll be able to give advice to non-professional clients and not to take part in the court trials as the counsel for the prosecution but only as the counsel for defence.

15.3.17. Предположим, что вы — один из присяжных. Расскажите нам о ваших обязанностях.

15.3.18. Предположим, что вас выбрали судьей ан­глийского суда. Каковы будут ваши обязан­ности?

15.3.19. Знаете ли вы, как называют лиц, которые выполняют следующие действия?

1. conduct a trial and pass the sentence;

2. have a first-hand knowledge of the event and give evidence under oath;

3. bring suits against other persons;

4. in cooperation with other persons are to decide the truth of the case tried before the judge;

5. act for the state in prosecuting criminals;

6. are appointed to try small offences in Britain;

7. break laws;

8. are suspected of committing crimes and brought before the court.

15.4. Practice in communication

(Certainty/Uncertainty)

*15.4.1. Read and try to remember.

Certainty                                                                Uncertainty

1. I'm quite/absolutely                                         1. I'm not sure.

certain/sure it is.                                                   2. I'm not quite/at all sure.

2. No, certainly not.                                             3. I'm not certain.

3. Yes, certainly.                                                   4. Could be/Might be.

4. There's no doubt.                                             5. I couldn't say.

    about it.

 15.4.2. Respond with certainly or uncertainly to the following questions:

1. Are boys cleverer than girls?

2. Is Chinese more widely spoken than English?

3. Are you generous?

4. Would you like to visit the Moon one day?

5. Do you like our lessons?

15.4.3. Read the dialogue and then dramatize it.

DETECTIVE: Where were you last night at exactly 9.20 pm?

BOB:       9.20 pm? I couldn't say. I can't remember.

DETECTIVE: Are you sure you can't remember?

BOB:       Absolutely certain. (Quite sure.)

DETECTIVE: Were you in or out? Can you remember that?

BOB:       I'm not sure. I think I went out at about half past nine. But I'm not certain.

DETECTIVE: Did you see anyone coming into the block of flats?

BOB:       No, I didn't.

DETECTIVE: Sure?

BOB:       Quite sure. There's no doubt about it.

15.4.4. A friend is asking you about your holidays. He/she wants to know what you did, where you went and so on. Some of the questions you can answer with certainty. Others you can't because you've forgotten.

15.5. General understanding

15.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 15)

1. Coke's mind went back to the time, five years earlier, when both he and Masters had been officers in the same Army Intelligence unit. Masters had been Coke's superior. Several important military secrets had disappeared and they were both trying to find out who had taken them.

One evening Coke had gone, on Masters' orders, to a lonely place in Epping Forest. Masters had told him he would meet a possible informer there. While he was waiting, three men had grabbed him from behind. They had poured whisky all over him and down his throat and then hit him over the head.

2. When he came to he was back in his car, but it had crashed into a tree. The police had already arrived. It appeared that Coke had got drunk and lost control of his car. The police had found several files marked «Top Secret» in his car. Coke swore he had never seen them before. The police also found Coke had deposited more than 2,000 in his bank account a few weeks before. Coke had known nothing of the money. The bank said the cheques had arrived by post with Coke's countersigna-ture. Nobody believed Coke's story. It appeared he had sold secrets for money and was going to do so again the night he had crashed. Masters denied he had ever told Coke to go to Epping Forest. This is what Coke wanted to ask questions about now.

3. «Let's start at the beginning... when you sent me to Epping Forest that night», Coke said in a flat, cold voice.

«That was Hugo's idea. I had nothing to do with it».

«And who is Hugo?» Coke demanded.

«He sells government secrets to any foreign country that's interested. He made me give him information. I didn't want to».

«Why did you involve me in all this?»

«The police suspected someone. We wanted to make them think you were the spy. We knew they would if they found your dead body in a car after a crash with all sorts of secrets in it».

«My dead body?»

«Hugo thought the crash would kill you». Masters said.

«And why aren't you still in the army? You'd be a lot more useful to Hugo if you were», Coke went on.

«It became too dangerous. Anyway, he still uses me».

«How?» Coke asked.

«We hide microfilms of secret documents in the antique weapons I send abroad. The people we send them to pose as foreign collectors». Coke had one last question. It was the most important. «Where's Hugo now? Take me to him!»

15.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. Masters had sent Coke to Epping Forest because...

a) he wanted him to meet the informer;

b) he wanted him to be killed;

c) he wanted him to receive some secret documents.

2. Nobody believed Coke because...

a) he was drunk;

b) the files had been found in his car;

c) he had sold secrets for money. 3. Hugo planned to kill Coke because...

a) he wanted the police think he was a spy;

b) he knew too many secrets;

c) police suspected him.

15.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. What were Coke and Masters trying to do five years earlier?

2. What happened when Coke was waiting in Epping Forest?

3. What did the police find in the car and in the bank?

4. What did Coke find out about Hugo?

5. What did the criminals want police to think?

6. How did Hugo use Masters?

15.5.4. Try to tell the main events of this extract in 3-4 sentences.

15.6. Scanning practice

15.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind.

1. What did a Spaniard do?

2. Where did the Indian apply?

3. What kind of a man was the judge of the court?

4. What did the Indian invent?

5. What did the Indian tell the judge?

15.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

Bribery stopped

It happened in America not long after its coloniza­tion by the Spaniards. A Spaniard stole an Indian's horse. The Indian however found the thief and demand­ed the horse to be returned to him, but the Spaniard refused to do it. The Indian applied to the court and brought witnesses who could testify that it was his horse. But the judge of the court was a bad man and used to take bribes from the parties who came to the court. The Indian knew this, and he invented a trick how to deceive the judge. Before going to the court on the day of the trial, he took a big stone and put it under his arm. The judge at once noticed that the Indian had something under his arm and decided the case in the Indian's favour. He ordered the horse to be returned to the Indian and punished the Spaniard for theft. After the trial, when the judge and the Indian were left alone, the judge asked the former what it was under his arm and whom it was meant for. The Indian showed him the stone and told it was meant for the judge in case he would had decided in the Spaniard's favour. It was a good lesson for the bad judge, and he gave up the habit of taking bribes.

(227 words)

15.6.3. Answer the questions in 15.6.1. (Books closed.)

15.7. Listening practice

15.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after reading the text.

1. What does he usually have with his meals?

2. What does he usually have on Mondays?

3. What perfume is Miss Smith wearing?

4. Does she always wear it?

5. What question was he going to ask her?

15.7.2. Listen to the dialogue.

15.7.3. Answer the questions in 15.7.1.

15.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text.

endangered — находящийся в опасности

owl — сова

environment — окружающая среда

threaten — угрожать

assassinate — убивать

logging — валка деревьев

bully — запугивать

destruction — уничтожение

solitary confinement — одиночное заключение

torture — пытка

courageous — мужественный

15.7.5. Listen to the story. Be ready to give the contents of it.

15.7.6. Tell the contents of the story as close to the text as possible.

15.8. Time for fun

15.8.1. Read the following jokes and then try to retell them in English.

1. LIFE TRIALS

«Come in, my poor man», said a lady to a ragged tramp, «and I will get you something to eat»;

«Thank you, ma'am».

«I suppose», continued the lady, setting a meal before him, «your life has been full of trials».

«Yes, ma'am; and the worst of it I was always got convicted».

trial — испытание, судебный процесс

convict — осудить

2. EXACT TESTIMONY

A coroner was examining a witness at the inquest.

«Your son says you saw the man jump out of the building?»

«Yes, sir».

«From your knowledge of men, do you think he jumped out of despondency?»

«No, sir; it was out of the fourth storey window».

coroner — следователь

inquest — следствие, расследование

despondency — крайнее отчаяние

!!! * 15.8.2. And now try to solve this crossword.

ACROSS:

1. A book in which you find the meaning of words. 7. Not cooked. 8. Every one. 10. Frequently. 12. The main notion of any religion. 14. Tidy. 17. Rest of comfort. 19. Act. 21. Personal pronoun (third person singular). 22. A meal or a drink. 23. Therefore. 24. Heap. 25. You must open these to enter houses. 28. Thirteen down without the «s». 29. Water falling from the clouds. 31. Preposition. 32. Attempt. 33. You can see five of these on your foot.

DOWN:

1. Pull. 2. Cold (comparative degree). 3. Not on. 4. Plural of «is». 5. Past tense of «run». 6. The twenty fifth and twenty-third letters of the alphabet. 9. Lonely (comparative). 11. Accusative of «they». 13. You do this with your eyes. 15. Not before. 16. Singular of 33 across. 18. Long (opposite). 20. Wireless. 23. Same as 23 across. 24. A tame animal. 26. Half of two. 27. A male child. 30. Preposition.