UNIT 13 : Английский язык для юристов - Александр Яковлевич Зеликман : Книги по праву, правоведение

UNIT 13

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Фонетика: sounds [D], [s], [z]

Словообразование: суффикс существительных -ity

Грамматика: пассивный залог (времена групп Conti­nuous, Perfect)

Текст: «Jane's letter» (cont.)

13.1. Sound right

13.1.1. Listen and look. Pay attention to the difference in pronounciation of the sounds [D], [s], [z]. [D] as in theirs, [z] as in buzz, [s] as in bus.

I

A. What's that, Father?

B. It's a buzzer, Lesley.

A. What does the buzzer do, Father?

B. The bus conductor presses the buzzer, and then that stops the bus.

A. But doesn't the bus driver stop and start the bus?

B. Yes, he does.

A. But you said the buzzer stops the bus, Father.

B. Lesley, would you like these ... sweets?

II

A. The sun's fabulous! The sky's blue! This is the sort of weather for bathing, Daisy!

B. This is the sort of weather for sleeping for hours on these marvellous sands!

A. Oh, let's bathe!

B. Please go to sleep, Liz!

A. Lazy Daisy!

B. Busy Lizzie!

13.1.2. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intona­tion.

13.1.3. Read the dialogues in pairs.

13.2. Word-building

13.2.1. Give Russian equivalents for the following nouns with the suffix -ity:

activity, reality, stability, responsibility, for­mality, cruelty, simplicity, humanity, seniority, popularity.

13.3. Full understanding

13.3.1. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте:

problem, statistical, guarantee [g{r@n'tÖ], phe­nomenon [fI'nOmIn@n], conflict, propaganda, tel­evision, film, programme, scene [sÖn], adminis­tration, international. * 13.3.2. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте, запомните:

New words:

to face — сталкиваться (с проблемой)

to violate [vaI@leIt] — нарушать

violence — насилие

violent — насильственный

to rob — грабить

neighbour ['neIb@] — сосед

to kill — убивать

to murder ['mýd@] — убивать

murderer [m'ýd@r@] — убийца

possibility — возможность

criminal — преступник

burglary ['býgl@rI] — кража со взломом

to watch TV — смотреть телевизор

juvenile ['³üv@naIl] — несовершеннолетний

reason — причина

School vocabulary:

to rise, dark, to buy, to get

*13.3.3. Прочитайте и переведите:

Jane's letter (cont.)

«...One more thing I'm going to tell you concerns the problem which faces our society now. I mean the problem of violence. The latest statistical data says that violent crime is rising constantly in this country. I know about it not only by newspapers reports. I've been robbed twice already and I'm afraid to leave my flat when it becomes dark. But even staying at home isn't a guarantee for safety. My old neighbour had been killed in his own flat and as usual the murderers hadn't been found by the police. Violence has become an accepted way of life in America. There are different explanations for this phe­nomenon. One of them is the possibility to buy any kind of weapons at gun shops everywhere in the US. The weapon is being bought not only by criminals but by law-abiding citizens too to protect themselves.

The growth of using drugs is one more reason. To buy drugs teenagers need money, so they try to get it by robbing, committing burglary or even murdering people. Another reason is the propaganda of violence by mass media and especially television and films. Watching TV you are being fed with all kinds of killings, beatings, gunfights and so on. Even the special programmes for children are full of scenes of violence. And it's not surprising that juvenile crime record is constantly grow­ing. I'm sorry I took so much of your time telling about my city and country, but I hope it was interesting for you. I'm looking forward to hearing from you soon. Please, give my best wishes to Pete.

Yours sincerely, Jane».

13.3.4. Петр составил несколько предложений с Pas­sive Voice. Но он не уверен, как расположить их в таблице. Помогите ему.

1. The student is being examined. Don't enter the room.

2. The students are examined twice a year.

3. The paper was published yesterday.

4. The paper has been published already.

5. The paper had been published by 7 o'clock yesterday.

6. The paper was being published at this time yesterday.

7. The letter will be sent tomorrow.

8. The letter will have been sent tomorrow by 7 o'clock.

INDEFINITE CONTINUOUS PERFECT

Present __________________________

Past _____________________________

Future ____________________________

13.3.5. Предположим, что вы — подозреваемый. Сле­дователь обвиняет вас в некоторых действиях. Попытайтесь оправдаться. (Используйте Pas­sive Voice.)

Model: I. You invited the man to the restau­rant.

S.      Oh, no, I was invited to the restau­rant by him.

1. You've struck this man first.

2. You had robbed several persons before we arrested you.

3. You said: «I'll phone him at 5».

4. You were watching somebody when they met you.

5. You asked him to help you.

6. You always cheat people.

13.3.6. Петр столь усердно изучал пассивные формы глагола, что окончательно запутался. Глаголы никак не хотят становиться на свои законные места. Помогите Петру навести порядок.

Stamps

In 1840, Rowland Hill's Penny Stamp Act became law. Under this law, letters... for by weight. Previously, they... according to the distance or number of sheets. It also became compulsory to pay for postage in advance. This... before and often people had refused to pay for letters which ... to them. Stamps ... in 1840 as an easy way of checking that postage... As Britain was the first country to use stamps widely, the country's name... on them. However, the head of the ruling monarch appears on every stamp.

previously — ранее

sheet — лист

to refuse — отказываться

to charge — назначать цену

compulsory — обязательно

to deliver — вручать

(had been paid; had not been done; were paid; were introduced; had been charged; had refused; were deliv­ered; was not written)

13.3.7. В письме Джейн есть несколько случаев употребления Passive Voice. Найдите их. Какая группа сделает это быстрее и лучше?

*13.3.8. Скажите по-английски:

1. Все телеграммы отправлены? — Нет еще, половина телеграмм отправлена вчера. Ос­тальные, кроме трех, напечатаны. Последние сейчас печатают. Их напечатают минут че­рез 20. 2. Не входите в комнату. Сейчас экза­менуют студента Петрова. Его экзаменуют уже 20 минут. 3. Что происходит в библиотеке? — Там сейчас обсуждаются новые книги. Их обсуждают уже час. 4. Много домов было разрушено в Ростове во время войны. Все они восстановлены, и много новых строится сей­час. 5. Преподаватель попросил студента вы­учить это правило самостоятельно, так как оно уже было объяснено. «Вы были невни­мательны, когда это правило объяснялось», — сказал он.

13.3.9. В тексте вам встретились 3 слова с одним корнем: Violence, violent, violate. Придумайте предложения с этими словами.

* 13.3.10. На столе убитого человека была найдена шифрованная записка с именем убийцы. Вы сможете узнать это имя, если отгадаете следующие слова:

1, 2, 3— deprive smb. of his property

4, 5, 6, 6 — put to death

3, 7, 1, 8, 6, 9, 1, 10 — crime of breaking into a house by night to steal

11,7, 12, 13, 14, 5, 6, 13 - young person, young offender

12, 5, 2, 6, 13, 14, 15, 13 - conduct accompa­nied by great force

16, 9, 17, 15, 18 - keep the eyes on

                NOTE

12,13,1,14,2,14       3,1,5,9,14    -9,14,13, 5, 8, 18, 3, 2, 7, 1.

* 13.3.11. Петру предложили написать доклад о пре­ступности в США. Какие ключевые слова понадобятся ему? Выпишите их.

* 13.3.12. Помогите Петру составить план его доклада.

13.3.13. Джейн упомянула несколько причин роста насилия в США. Перечислите их.

*13.3.14. Петр только что закончил свой доклад и готов ответить на вопросы. Какие вопросы вы ему зададите?

* 13.3.15. Скажите по-английски:

1. Я столкнулся с некоторыми проблемами. 2. В американских газетах каждый день сообщается об актах насилия. 3. Ограбление произошло всего час назад. 4. Молодой человек был остановлен преступниками и ограблен. 5. У убийцы не было возможности скрыться. 6. Этот человек был убит вчера около 3 часов ночи.

13.4. Practice in communication

*13.4.1. Read and try to remember:

Ways of giving sympathy and encouragement to someone.

A. I've failed my exams.

B. 1. I'm so sorry.

2. I'm sorry to hear that.

3. What a shame!

4. What bad luck!

5. Never mind!

6. Cheer up!

7. You mustn't worry (about it...)

8. It could be worse.

13.4.2. Tell your friends:

1. your car was stolen;

2. your house was burgled;

3. you've had your car licence endorsed;

4. your boy/girl friend has left you;

5. when you got to the airport your flight had been cancelled.

He/she will give sympathy and encouragement.

13.4.3. Read the dialogue and then dramatize it.

JOHN: I dare say you've heard about my break­down on the motorway.

TOM: Yes. What bad luck! But cheer up! It could have been worse.

JOHN: Could it! They tell me it needs a new engine.

TOM: Oh, no! I am sorry. It'll cost you a fortune.

JOHN: Yes, over $500 I believe.

ТОМ: 500! Oh, that is bad luck. You poor chap.

JOHN: Still, as you say, it could have been a lot worse. I might have been killed.

TOM: Quite. It's not the end of the world. But I know how you feel. 500 is a lot of money.

13.4.4. A friend is speaking to you about a number of problems he has been having recently. Give him sympathy and encouragement.

13.5. General understanding

13.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 13)

1. It was around midnight when the phone rang in Eric Masters' flat. The voice on the other end was hard and cold. «This is Hugo», it said. «There was an old blind man in the pub. He had a young woman with him. He asked about you and then went to your shop». Masters blinked in surprise. His voice cracked slightly. «But I don't know anybody like that. What did they want?» «How do I know, you fool? Just watch out for them, that's all!» Hugo said furiously and hung up. Masters slept very badly that night.

2. Eric Masters was cleaning an antique pistol when the phone rang in his shop. He heard a young woman's voice at the other end. «I believe you buy and sell antique weapons», she said. «Yes, that's right. I'm particularly interested in old firearms». «My father is too. He wants to sell some of 17-th century pistols. Would you be interested?» «Certainly. If you bring them to my shop, I'll look at them and give you a price». «Well, unfortunately my father's blind. It's very difficult for him to get about. Would you mind coming to our place?» Masters managed to answer calmly. «Well... er... my assistant is out to lunch. I'll come over when he comes back. Is that all right?» He noted the address she gave him and hung up. His hands were trembling slightly. «These must be the people Hugo told me about», he thought. He reached into a drawer and took out a pistol. This one was not an antique. It was a small, black, nasty-looking automatic. «Perhaps the old man really does want me to look at his pistols», he thought when he was getting into his white Jaguar and driving off.

3. He felt safer when Kate opened the door. She was slim, almost delicate-looking. «Good afternoon», he said. «I'm Eric Masters. You rang my shop earlier». She smiled. «I hope I haven't put you to any trouble», she said pleasantly, and led him into the sitting-room. Masters glanced suspiciously at the old, blind man sitting on the sofa. At first he seemed harmless enough, but there was something familiar about the man's face that made Masters look more carefully at him. «I'll go and get the pistols». Kate said. Masters stayed where he was, where he could see everything and where nobody could come in behind him. The old blind man didn't move. «Are you a collector too?» Masters asked. The old man simply nodded. The woman came out of the bedroom with a large black case. «They're all in here», she said. «If you come over here, to the table, we can look at them. My father doesn't really want anyone else to have them, but it's a question of money».

Masters kept his eyes fastened on the old man's face as he walked towards the table. He was halfway there when the old man raised his face slightly. The sudden movement made Masters stop. The more he looked at that face, the more suspicious he became. Suddenly it dawned on him. He stared at both of them. They were both waiting for him to come nearer. It was the old man's nose and lips that made Masters think of Coke. He reached for his pistol.

13.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. Masters took a pistol with him because...

a) he was sure he was going to meet Coke;

b) he always had it with him;

c) he felt safer with it.

2. Masters looked more carefully at the man because...

a) he recognized Coke;

b) there was something familiar about the man's face;

c) he recognized his voice.

3. Masters stopped because...

a) there was a sudden movement of the old man;

b) he became very suspicious;

c) they were staring at him.

13.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. What news did Hugo tell Masters?

2. What did the woman speaking over the phone want?

3. What did Eric promise?

4. What did he take out of a drawer?

5. What made Masters look more carefully at an old man?

6. What made Masters think of Coke?

13.5.4. Give the main idea of this part of the story in 2-3 sentences.

13.6. Scanning practice

13.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind.

1. Who was placed behind the doors?

2. What would happen if the door which con­cealed the tiger was opened?

3. What would happen if the door which con­cealed the lady was opened?

4. What was the princess" decision?

13.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

The lady or the tiger?

Once a king had decreed that every person accused of crime should be placed in a large room, where, in the presence of the king and the court he is to open one of two doors which were exactly alike. Behind one door was a hungry, man-eating tiger and behind the other a beautiful lady, dressed as a bride. If he opened the door which concealed the tiger he was considered to be guilty and put to death, if he opened the door which concealed the lady, he was considered innocent and was immediately married to her. No previous ties were allowed to be an obstacle to marriage. The disposition of the lady and the tiger was, of course, a secret.

Now it happened that a young noble man who was rather poor won the love of the king's daughter; and being suspected by the king was imprisoned and brought to trial before two doors. The princess discovered behind which doors the lady and the tiger were to be placed. She didn't want, of course, her lover to be eaten by tiger, but she also didn't want him to become the husband of some other lady. At length her mind was made up. On the day of the trial she managed to signal her lover to open the right-hand door. This he immediately did. The author leaves the question to you: «Who came out of the opened door — the lady or the tiger?»

(250 words)

13.6.3. Answer the questions in 13.6.1. (Books closed.)

13.7. Listening practice

13.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after listening to the text:

1. When was the director attacked?

2. What are the police going to do?

3. Why was the director sure about the time?

4. Why couldn't he see the face of the attacker?

5. How did he break his leg?

13.7.2. Listen to the dialogue.

13.7.3. Answer the questions in 13.7.1.

13.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text.

pushchair — тележка

pile — кипа

security guard — охранник

stuff — засунуть

to be embarrassed — чувствовать себя неловко

obviously — очевидно

13.7.5. Listen to the story. Be ready to give the contents of it.

13.7.6. Tell the contents of the story as close to the text as possible.

13.8. Time for fun

13.8.1. Read the following newspaper stories. Try to retell them. You may do it in Russian.

1. Swallowed watch  “Not returned”

A schoolgirl of 13, accused of stealing a wristwatch was said yesterday at Castle Eden juvenile court to have swallowed it accidentally when a teacher made inquiries. Hospital x-rays showed it inside her but later there was no sign of the watch and it had not been returned. The girl was put on one year's probation and was ordered to pay compensation.

2. Stole bottle of wine — gets seven years

After pleading guilty to stealing a bottle of wine, Robert Grook, 72, of no fixed address, was yesterday sentenced by the chairman of a London court to 7 years of confinement.

The prosecutor said it was obvious that Grook broke a window with the intention of being arrested. He said the prisoner had not eaten for a week.

Police said that Grook had 57 previous convictions, and when he broke the window he had been out of prison for only six days.

3. Twelve old ladies arrested for gambling

Police caught 12 old ladies - the oldest was 87 -playing cards in a house, in one of the Hague's most respectable districts.

All 12 were arrested, as gambling is illegal in Holland. Police said the stakes were high and they seized several thousand guilders. (A guilder is worth almost two shillings.)

? 13.8.2. What is the longest English word?