UNIT 12 : Английский язык для юристов - Александр Яковлевич Зеликман : Книги по праву, правоведение

UNIT 12

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Фонетика: sounds [s], [T]

Словообразование: отрицательный префикс un-

Грамматика: пассивный залог

Текст: «Jane's letter» (cont.)

12.1. Sound right

12.1.1. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the difference in pronounciation of the sounds [s] and [T]: [s] as in sink, [T] as in think.

I

A. It's not safe.

B. Of course, it's safe.

A. I think, it'll sink. It's only made of thin cloth.

B. It's not cloth, it's plastic. And it's not thin, it's thick.

A. Well, even thick plastic can burst.

B. It's quite safe. The man said so.

A. And anyway, sailing makes me sick.

II

A. Now, look at this, sir — this marvellous seventeenth century mirror. It's a thing both of beauty and of worth.

B.     Yes,butd'youthink...

A. Oh, I think you'll like the price too, sir.

B. Mmm. Perhaps so. But to me it seems quite worthless.

A. Oh — you can have complete faith in it?

B. Yes — but can you see your face in it?

12.1.2. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intona­tion.

12.1.3. Read the dialogues in pairs.

12.1.4. Listen and look. Pay attention to the difference in pronunciation of the sounds [T] and [t]: [9] as in three, [t] as in tree.

I

A. I think I shall plant two or three of these trees.

B. Mmm. Two or three trees would be nice. Where do you think you'll plant them?

A. On both sides of the path, I think.

B. And when the trees are tall...

A. I shall be a hundred and thirty.

II

A. I'm taking mathematics and theology.

B. And who teaches you math?

A. Mr. Theodore.

B. But I thought Mr. Theodore taught theology.

A. He taught theology last term. But the math teacher left and now Mr. Theodore will be taking us for maths.

B. Well, who's taking you for theology now?

A. Mrs. Theodore.

B. I didn't know Mrs. Theodore had studied theology.

A. That is how she met Mr. Theodore.

12.1.5. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

12.1.6. Read the dialogues in pairs.

12.2. Word-building

12.2.1. Give Russian equivalents to the following words:

unjust, unfortunately, unwritten, unfair, un­known, unnecessary, unlock, unload, uncon­scious.

12.2.2. Perephrase the following word combinations using prefix un-;

not equal in size; not familiar names; not a happy woman; a believable fact; not a healthy place; not human treatment; not finished work; one who doesn't believe something; lack of certainty.

12.3. Full understanding

12.3.1. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте:

specialist, jurisdiction [,³u@rIs'dIkS@n], national, to organize, veto ['vÖtou], to block, bill, Federal Court of Appeals [a'pÖlz].

* 12.3.2. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте, запомните:

New words:

Chief Justice — главный судья

to approve [@'prüv] — одобрять

circuit ['sýkIt] — округ

bench — (зд.) состав суда

judiciary [³ü'dIS(@)rI] — судоустройство

existing — существующий

to pass a law — принять закон

to issue ['Isjü] — издавать (о приказе)

School vocabulary:

field, to belong, white.

12.3.3. Прочитайте и переведите:

Jane's letter

(continued)

«...You asked me to tell some words about the judicial system of the USA. Though I'm not a specialist in this field I'll try to do my best. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ of the US and it meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington. It's a beautiful build­ing of white marble. Above the main entrance the words are written «Equal Justice Under Law». The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of the USA and eight Associate Justices. They are all appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. The Su­preme Court has the right to declare unconstitutional any law passed by Congress or any order issued by the President. This right of veto is widely used to block the passage of any progressive bills. The USA is divided into eleven judicial circuits and each one is served with a Federal Court of Appeals. As a rule the Court of Appeals sits with three judges on the bench. There are about ninety district courts in different parts of the United States. The district courts are the lowest ones in the Federal court system. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by these courts. The district court is the only Federal court where trials are held, juries are used, and witnesses are called. There are about two hundred district judges in the USA. Cases tried in the district court may be appealed in one of the eleven Courts of Appeal and in the Supreme Court. The decision of the Supreme Court is final. In the US the judiciary is divided into the federal and state judiciary. Jurisdiction of particular courts or judges is deter­mined by either the national or state constitutions and laws. The state courts are organized in a system that looks like the system of Federal courts with a Supreme Court at the top. In most of the states the lowest courts are the magistrates, or police courts...»

(to be continued)

12.3.4. В тексте встречаются более 10 случаев употре­бления Passive Voice. Дайте, пожалуйста, точную цифру.

12.3.5. Предположим, что вы пишете отчет вашему начальнику о краже со взломом. Используйте следующие слова и Passive Voice.

1. The door of the house, to force, at 10 p. m. yesterday.

2. The old man, to beat, to tie.

3. The most valuable things, to take.

4. The fingerprints, to find, on many pieces of furniture.

5. The knife, to leave, by one of the burglars.

6. The car, to use, by them, and the traces of it, to find, near the house.

7. The old man, to take to the hospital.

12.3.6. Предположим, что вы сопровождаете в качест­ве гида иностранного туриста, приехавшего в Ростов. Предложите ему план пребывания в Ростове. Используйте Future Simple.

Model: Tomorrow at 5 p. m. you'll be taken to Drama Theatre.

12.3.7. Преподаватель упрекает вас в целом ряде поступков. Попытайтесь оправдаться, исполь­зуя Passive Voice и выражения:

Oh, no; you see...;

The fact is that...;

On the contrary...

1. You took my text-book yesterday.

2. You fell asleep at my lesson.

3. I saw you kiss this girl/boy.

4. I know you are going to miss my lesson tomorrow.

5. You broke the window in our classroom yesterday.

6. You hid my bag and I can't find it.

7. You beat your neighbour.

12.3.8. В нашем классе случаются странные вещи. Скажите, кого вы подозреваете в этом.

Model: (to break the window) — The window was broken by...

1. to tear note-books;

2. to break the teacher's table;

3. to eat smb's apple;

4. to hide student's coats;

5. to bring monkey to the lesson;

6. to write a letter to the teacher;

7. to scold the teacher.

*12.3.9. Скажите по-английски:

1. Меня попросили рассказать о судебной системе США. 2. Его предложение одобря­ется всеми членами совета. 3. Эти судьи назначаются президентом. 4. Этого свидетеля вызвали последним 5. Присяжные ис­пользуются в наиболее серьезных случаях. 6. Закон был принят вчера. 7. Страна раз­делена на несколько округов. 8. Большинство гражданских дел рассматривается судами магистрата. 9. Существующие системы судов штатов возглавляются верховными судами штатов. 10. Суды штатов организованы по­добно федеральным судам.

12.3.10. Петр решил рассказать смешную историю. Он пытался как можно чаще употреблять Passive Voice. Удалось ли ему справиться с этим без ошибок?

This story was told by Charles Dickens. During a sea-trip a young girl was courted by five young men. She was at a loss whom to choose. She was advised to jump overboard and then marry the one who would be jumped in after her. The girl did as she was told. She was jumped into the sea and was followed by four of the men. When they were fished out of the water by the sailors she was at a loss even more than before. «What shall I do with these four wet men?» — she was asked the captain. «Take the dry one», was the old sea-wolf's advice. And so she did.

12.3.11. Постарайтесь начертить схему системы фе­деральных судов США, пользуясь инфор­мацией в тексте этого урока.

12.3.12. Попытайтесь соотнести название судов (сле­ва) и их юрисдикцию (справа).

Supreme Court 1. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by this court.

Court of Appeal 2. It has the right to declare unconstitutional any law passed by Congress.

District Court 3. It hears appeals from low­er courts.

12.3.13. Прочитайте дополнительную информацию о федеральной системе судов США и рас­скажите, что вы поняли (по-русски).

Courts     The government can be sued for of Claims unpaid salary, property taken for public use and personal injuries for which the Federal government is responsible. The Court of Claims consists of a chief justice and 4 as­sociate justices who are appointed by the President with Senate ap­proval.

Customs   This court deals with all the cases

Court      arising at the customs when goods enter the country. This court was established in 1890 and is located in New York where most of its business is conducted.

Court of   The court hears appeals from

Customs   decisions of the Customs Court and Patent and the Patent Office. Its judge-Appeals    ments and decrees are final.

* 12.3.14. Предположим, что вы — один из судей Верховного суда США. Иностранные кор­респонденты задают вам вопрос о судебной системе США. Дайте точные ответы на их вопросы.

12.4. Practice in communication

(Refusal)

* 12.4.1. Read and try to remember:

Here are some ways of refusing to comply with someone's suggestions.

1. No, thank you. I don't want to.

2. No, certainly not.

3. Why should I?

4. Oh, no!

5. Never!

6. Good heavens, no!

12.4.2. Ask someone why they don't:

1. buy a television;

2. call the police;

3. go into politics;

4. get a new job;

5. have a haircut;

6. take up yoga;

7. become a doctor.

He/she will refuse to comply with your sugges­tions.

12.4.3. Look through the dialogue and then dramatize it.

HE   Why don't you sit down and relax, dar­ling?

SHE Because I don't want to.

HE   Well, come and talk to me then.

SHE Certainly not.

HE   May I turn on the radio then?

SHE Turn on the radio? What for?

HE   So that we can sit together and listen to some music.

SHE Listen to some music? And who'll cook the dinner? Will you?

HE   OK, I will. But let's go to a disco after dinner.

SHE To a disco? Good heavens, no! You know I hate pop.

12.4.4. Make any suggestions you like. You partner will refuse to comply.

12.5. General understanding

12.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 12)

1. Kate led Coke to a table and then went to the bar to get their drinks. «Masters isn't here», Coke said. «Surely you didn't expect to walk in and find him, just like that?» «No, I suppose not».

They had been there for over an hour. More people came in, but Masters was not among them. It was getting towards closing time when the barman came to their table. «May I take you empty glasses?» he asked politely. Coke touched him on his sleeve. «Does a man named Eric Masters ever come in here?» he asked. He did not notice the man standing at the bar who stared at him in the mirror when he mentioned Masters' name.

2. The barman thought for a second. «There's a man named Eric Masters who comes in here a lot. He's a military type. Is that who you mean?» he asked. Coke tried to sound casual when he asked his next question. «Has he been here today?» The barman nodded. «Yes, he was in this afternoon». «I don't suppose you know where I can find him now?» Coke said. «I'm afraid not. All I know about him is that he has an antique shop somewhere near Red Lion Square», he answered.

The barman was shouting «Last orders, please» when Coke and Kate left. Kate led him through the crowded, bright streets. When they got to Shaftesbury Avenue, Kate called a taxi. Neither she nor Coke noticed the man who was so close behind them in the crowd that he heard Kate say «Red Lion Square, please» to the driver. They did not see him get into a cab and follow them.

3. «Would you mind driving round the Square once?» Kate asked the driver. Red Lion Square was deserted. «It's obviously not on the square itself», Coke said. They got out the taxi, paid the driver and started exploring. There were antique shops on several of the side streets but Masters' name was not among the other names of the owners.

Half an hour later they were still looking. Kate kept glancing over her shoulder. She had the uncomfortable feeling that someone was following them but she couldn't see anybody.

«I don't like wandering round the dark streets at this hour», she said. «I don't like doing it, either, but what else can we do? We can't stop looking now. It might be our last chance». Coke answered. Suddenly something in the window of a shop across the road caught his eye. The street was very dark but the thing gleamed. It reflected the light of a passing car. They crossed the street. The thing was an old military sabre and it was in a window marked «Antique Weapons and Military Antiques». There were old pistols, helmets and other swords in the window. Coke became excited. «This must be it!» he said. There was no name on the window but there was a phone number on the door. Coke copied it down.

12.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. When Coke asked the barman about Eric Masters...

a) the man at the bar stared at him;

b) the barman stared at him in surprise;

c) the barman looked at the man at the door bar.

2. When Kate and Coke took the taxi...

a) they noticed the man behind them;

b) the man followed them in a cab;

c) the man lost sight of them.

3. When Kate glanced over her shoulder...

a) she noticed the man following them;

b) she could not see anybody;

c) she saw the light of a passing car.

12.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. What did Coke ask the barman about?

2. What didn't Coke notice?

3. What did they learn from barman about Masters?

4. What did the man who followed them do?

5. What was there on the side streets of the square?

6. Why did Kate keep glancing over her shoul­der?

7. What caught Coke's eye?

8. How was the window marked?

9. What was there in the window and on the door?

12.5.4. Compose the plan for this part of the story.

12.6. Scanning practice

12.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind.

1. Why did Mr. Newbery shoot?

2. What was the judgement?

3. What did the judgement cause?

4. Was Mr. Newbery right, trying to defend himself?

12.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

82-year-old man who shot burglar must pay him $ 4000

An 82-year-old man who shot a burglar who was trying to break into his allotment shed was ordered to pay him $ 4000 damages yesterday. Ted Newberey had been sleeping in a shed to try to stop vandals destroying his allotment. He fired through a hole in the door when he heard voices outside. Mark Revill, 28, was hit in the chest and arm by 50 shotgun pellets as he and another man tried to smash their way into the shed.

They had gone there to steal, knowing that the pensioner had a television set and a washing machine in the shed.

Mr Newbery had slept in the shed every night for four years because of vandalism, the court was told by the defense. That night, he heard a loud banging on the door and a voice saying: «If the old man's in there, we'll do him». He was absolutely terrified, and fired the gun in self-defense. As the result of the incident, Mr Revill lost two fingers, and has partially lost the use of one arm

Mr Justice Rougier ruled that Mr. Newbery had acted out of all proportion to the threat. He had not acted in panic, but had planned his response in advance, and it had been reckless to shoot the shotgun through a hole in the door, while not being able to see what he was shooting at. Mr Justice Rougier awarded Revill $4000 for his injuries and loss of earnings.

The judgement coursed an immediate public outcry. Tim Molloney the Mayor of Erewash, launched an appeal to raise money to pay Mr Newbery's bill, and started the fund with a contribution of $100. Since then, money has been pouring in from all over the country. A London restaurateur was one of the dozens to call «The Times» to express his anger over the affair. Husseyin Ozer, 42, said he would sell his Rolex watch to pay the award. «I'm outraged. The old saying that an Englishman's home is his castle doesn't seem to be true any more», he said.

(350 words)

12.6.3. Answer the questions in 12.6.1. (Books closed.)

12.7. Listening practice

12.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after listening to the text.

1. Why wasn't the student driving carefully?

2. What was the girl wearing and what was she carrying?

3. Where was the dog sitting?

12.7.2. Listen to the dialogue.

12.7.3. Answer the questions in 12.7.1.

12.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text.

respond — реагировать

violence — насилие

coach — тренер

victim — жертва

scream — кричать

kick — бить ногами

brick — кирпич

half-conscious — в полубессознательном состоянии

stitch — шов

nightmare — кошмар

regret — сожалеть

12.7.5. Listen to the story. Be ready to give the contents of it in Russian.

12.7.6. Tell the contents of the story as close to the text as possible. You may do it in Russian.

12.8. Time for fun

12.8.1. Read the following jokes. Try to retell them. You may do it in Russian.

1. A friend of the judge dropped in for a visit one morning before court opened and looked around. «Goodness, you certainly have a lot of criminals to try this morning, haven't you?» he observed.

«Oh, not so many», answered the judge. «You are looking at the wrong bench — those are the lawyers».

2. Lawyer: Now that we have won, will you tell me confidentially if you stole the mo­ney?

Client: Well, after hearing you talk in court yesterday, I am beginning to think I didn't.

3. Judge: Have you anything to say before I pass sentence on you?

Prisoner: Yes, Your Honour, I should like you to have your lunch first.

? *12.8.2. A word has five letters. Take away two, and only one remains. Guess which word it is.

? 12.8.3. Lots of English words sound alike but have different meaning. Can you complete the sen­tences using words from the list below?

1. A. That ... of shoes cost 22 and the heels fell off after three days.

B. Would you like some grapes or a ... with your cheese?

2. A. I got so ... in the          history lecture I fell asleep.

B. There will be a ...              meeting tomorrow.

3. A. Sorry I'm late; I went ... my bus stop

B. He ... his driving test the second time he took it.

4. A. His relationship with his mother lies at the ... of his personality problems.

B. The police recommended an alternative ... to avoid heavy traffic.

5. A. In the US, you buy milk in..., in Britain, in pints.

B. She's got a new ... crystal watch.

(root, route; board, bored; pear, pair; quarts, quartz; passed, past)


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