UNIT 10 : Английский язык для юристов - Александр Яковлевич Зеликман : Книги по праву, правоведение

UNIT 10

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Фонетика: sound [T]

Словообразование: суффикс прилагательных -аl

Грамматика: прошедшее время Past Perfect

Текст: «Pete's travel to London» (continued)

10.1. Sound right

10.1.1. Listen, look, say:

theme       north     fifths     three

thought                  south   hearths   throw

thigh        month   lenghths thread

thing        youth    faithsthrew

thumb       truth     Ruth's    thrust

thin                         birth        Smith's   throng

10.1.2. Listen, look, say:

1. Think things over.

2. When three Thursdays come together.

3. Thad'11 go through thick and thin.

4. A thousand thanks to you both.

5. You've thrust the thing in my throat.

6. Theo threw the thing into his teeth.

7. Martha's like nothing on earth.

8. Kenneth and Arthur are as thick as thieves.

9. Theo sees through things.

10. Timothy is within a hair's breadth of death.

11. I'll speak the truth and nothing but the truth.

10.1.3. Listen and look. Pay attention to the pronunci­ation of the sound [T].

A. Date of birth?

B. The third of March, nineteen thirty three.

A. The third of March, nineteen thirty three.

В. I think.

A. You think what?

B. I think it was the third — but perhaps it was the fourth.

A. You think in was either the third or the fourth?

B. No, I don't think it was either the third or the fourth — I know it was either the third or the

fourth and I think it was the third.

A. Mmm. Well anyway, I think you ought to know...

B. Yes?

A. The positions have been taken. We've filled the vacancies already.

B. What, both?

A. Both.

10.1.4. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intona­tion.

10.1.5. Read the dialogues in pairs.

10.1.6. Try to read the tongue-twister as fast as you can:

Theo thrust a thumb through two or three thick straw thatches.

10.2. Word-building

10.2.1. Give Russian equivalents to the following word-combinations:

classical music, logical conclusion, critical re­mark, colonial system, cultural relations, liberal views, special task, universal rule, sensational news, governmental office, historical category.

10.2.2. Answer the questions:

1. Do you like sentimental poetry?

2. What are the principal towns of Russia, USA?

                3. What big botanical gardens in Russia do you            know?

                4. In what Asian countries are there the worst               material conditions of life?

10.3. Full understanding

10.3.1. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте:

                Scheme ['skÖm], start, discussion, sort, residence ['rezId(@)ns], Cabinet, concert, museum, hotel [ho(u)'tel]. Big Ben, Westminister Abbey ['{bI], Poet's Corner, Chaucer ['þs@], Charles Dick­          ens, Alfred Tennyson, Rudyard Kipling, White­             hall, Downing Street, Trafalgar Square, Nelson    Column, National Gallery, Hyde Park, Speak­   er's Corner.

* 10.3.2. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте, запомните:

                New words:

to appear — (зд.) оказываться custom — обычай

district — район

to produce an impression on... — производить впечатление

to exist — существовать

School vocabulary:

go on, story, to put, to leave, foot, cry, hot, fight, to become, writer, along, number, high, hall, large, among, to keep, clean, half.

* 10.3.3. Прочитайте и переведите:

Pete's travel to London (continued)

«Hello, everybody! I go on with my story about London. Last time I told you that Steve King had promised to be my guide. And what a nice guide he appeared to be! First he took me to Westminister where most governmental buildings are situated. From the Westminister bridge we could get the best view of the Houses of Parliament with the famous clock tower called Big Ben. We could even get inside the Houses. Before we left the Palace of Westminister (its official name) Steve had told me many interesting things about old customs which exist to this day. I'd like to tell you only about one of them. There is a strip of carpet in front of the members' benches in the House of Commons and when a member, speaking in the House puts his foot beyond that strip there is a cry «Order!». This dates from the time when the members had swords on them and during hot discussions might start fighting. The carpet had become the sort of frontier. We also had visited Westminister Abbey. Steve told me that all the kings and queens of England — 37 in all — had been crowned there and many of them had been buried there too. One of the parts of the Abbey is called Poet's Corner, because many of the greatest writers are buried there: Chaucer, Charles Dickens, Alfred Tennys­on, Rudyard Kipling and some others. Leaving the Abbey we went along Whitehall and then turned into a narrow lane — Downing Street. There's Number Ten, the official residence of the Prime Minister. All the Cabinet meetings take place there. I was really happy when we came to the famous Trafalgar Square with the tall (185 feet high) Nelson Column in the centre and the National Gallery forming one side of the square.

Then Steve took me to the West End, the richest and the most beautiful part of London, where I could see the finest theatres, cinemas and concert halls, famous muse­ums and large hotels, department stores and shops. There are many parks and gardens in the West End, among them Hyde Park, most famous of all because of its Speaker's Corner.

The East End, which is the poorest district of London where most of the workers live, didn't produce great impression on me. There are still many people who live in poverty. They keep their houses and streets clean but all of them are not half as nice as they are in the West End.

So thanks to Steve I had managed to see the most interesting sights of London by the end of my stay there. Next day after I had said good-bye to Steve and he had promised to come to our country and visit Rostov, our group left London».

10.3.4. Расскажите вашему другу о трех самых важ­ных вещах, которые вы завершили к концу прошлого года.

Model: I had finished reading the textbook on History of State and Law.

10.3.5. Ваш друг говорит, что он сделал что-то в прошлом. А вы заявляете, что сделали это еще раньше.

Model: I. I went to the concert yesterday.

2. I had gone to this concert before you did.

10.3.6. Ваш преподаватель упрекает вас в том, что вы чего-то не делали. Разубедите его, сообщите, что вы еще раньше сделали это.

Model: Т. Why didn't you want to translate the text?

S. Because I had translated it already?

1. Why did you refuse to see this new film?

2. Why didn't you hand in the translation in time?

3. Why didn't you speak with this girl?

4. Why didn't you prepare your home-work?

5. Why didn't you come in time?

10.3.7. В текстах есть несколько случаев употребления Past Perfect. Найдите их и объясните их употребление.

10.3.8. Предположим, что вы принимаете участие в конкурсе на звание лучшего рассказчика. Чтобы научиться хорошо рассказывать, вы должны разбираться в употреблении Past Tenses. Сможете ли вы выбрать правильное Past Tense для следующих предложений?

1. Mike (to swim) in the swimming-pool while I was sitting and watching him.

2. Mike got tired after he (to swim) 3 miles.

3. They (to have dinner) at 2 o'clock yesterday.

4. They said (to learn) Spanish for six months last year, but she can't speak.

5. They said the child (to draw) a very nice picture.

6. She (to clean) the rooms when somebody knocked at the door.

7. She (to clean) the rooms before she went out.

8. They went home after they (to solve) this problem.

10.3.9. Автор сделал несколько ошибок в употреблении Past Tenses в следующей шутке. Помогите ему найти их и исправить.

Once a mother and her two daughters were visiting London. They did sightseeing for some time when they came to the building with a noticeboard «National Picture Gallery» on it. The girls wanted to go in for they never were in any picture gallery. But their mother visited a picture gallery in her childhood and knew what it was like. She explained to the girls that there were no «real pictures» (movies she meant), but mere paintings.

*10.3.10. Скажите по-английски:

1. Он приехал в наш город пять лет назад. К тому времени он уже окончил университет. 2. Когда я пришел домой, мои родители обедали, а старший брат ушел в кино. 3. Вы подготовились к контрольной работе? — Да, я повторил весь материал вчера вечером. 4. На днях я встретил Анну. Она рассказала мне о нашем общем знакомом. Он прислал ей пись­мо. 5. Когда Петр вошел в комнату, Нелли уже приготовила обед. 6. В прошлом году Нелли осталась летом в городе: она за­болела. 7. Джейн никого не хотела слушать. Студенты никогда не видели ее такой серди­той. 8. Летом мы ездили в горы — я никогда до этого не видел гор.

10.3.11. Ваш друг собирается поехать в Лондон в качестве туриста. Порекомендуйте ему, что стоит посмотреть там.

Useful language:

If you are interested in... you should see... If you want to see... I recommend you to go...

10.3.12. Прочитайте следующую информацию об Уголке Ораторов в Гайд-Парке.

As you walk past Hyde Park in London you may see people speaking on different subjects. At Speaker's Corner one can say anything one pleases. People sometimes talk about important economic, political and social problems, sometimes about minor matters.

Теперь представьте, что мы находимся в Уголке Ораторов. Выступая перед слуша­телями, используйте фразы:

Ladies and gentlemen! I'd like to tell you ...

And in conclusion let me...

Thank you for attention!

* 10.3.13. Стив рассказал Петру о некоторых интерес­ных обычаях, связанных с парламентом. Прочитайте описания этих обычаев.

I

Most members do not attend Parliament all the time;

but when there is an important discussion they are urged to attend. The Party Whips are especially responsible for seeing that all members of their party are present on such occasions. The letter sent by a Party Whip to the members of Parliament is called a «whip».

II

No man can make speeches in the House of Commons unless the Speaker calls on him, and no member may deliver more than one major speech in a debate. The name of the sovereign must not be introduced and the House of Lords is always referred to as «another place». Members do not address each other by name, but always as «the honourable member for so-and-so».

III

There is an expression used in the House of Commons to show the end of the day's business. Somebody calls out: «Who goes home?» and the session ends up and the members hurry home. This custom remains from the time when there was a lot of robbers in London. In the dark night the members went in groups through the narrow streets of the old city.

А теперь попытайтесь передать эти истории тем, кто их не знает или не понял, когда читал.

*10.3.14. Предположим, что вы — переводчик. Помо­гите англичанину ответить на вопросы рос­сийских студентов:

Q. Что собой представляет Вестминстерский дворец?

A. The Palace of Westminister is an official name for the House of Parliament. The building of the Palace is the seat of the British Parliament. There are two Houses: House of Lords and the House of Commons.

Q. Чем знаменито Вестминстерское аббатство?

A. All the kings and queens of England had been crowned there and many of them as well as many great writers had been buried there too.

Q. Где происходят заседания кабинета министров?

A. All the Cabinet meetings take place at Number 10, Downing street— the official residence of the Prime Minister.

Q. В чем различие между Ист-эндом и Уэст-эндом?

A. Working-class London is in the East End. It is a district of docks, factories, poor little houses and narrow streets. Housing conditions in this part of London are very bad. The West End is the finest part of London. There are famous shops, theatres, cinemas, museums, picture galleries and many beautiful parks.

10.4. Practice in communication

(Complaint and Apology/Excuse)

*10.4.1. Read and try to remember:

Here are some ways of expressing your dissatis­faction with someone or something.

A. (complaint)                                                       B. (apology/excuse)

1. I bought these gloves here.                           1. Yes, I know but...

When I got home there was                               2. I'm sorry...

a hole in them. Look!                           3. Sorry, there's no-

2. I don't think this fish is fresh,        thing I can do about

3. There's no hot water in my room. it, I'm afraid.

A. 1. I (really) don't think that's good enough.

2. It/that (just) won't do.

3. That's no excuse.

4. You can't expect me to...

10.4.2. A friend complains that you:

1. never write to him or her.

2. were very rude to him/her.

3. tell lies.

4. still owe him/her 10 dollars.

Excuse yourself. Your friend doesn't accept your apology.

10.4.3. Suppose you are a landlady or landlord. One of your guests:

1. comes in late every night.

2. leaves all the lights on.

3. makes a lot of noise.

4. listens to loud pop music on the radio.

5. leaves the front door open.

Complain to him/her about these habits. He/ she will find excuses which you do not accept.

10.5. General understanding

10.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 10)

1. The motorbike was fast but the roads were icy. Coke drove dangerously. He knew he had to. He had very little time. Around 2 o'clock in the morning he suddenly saw lights in his mirror. They were the headlights of police car. It came closer and closer and then suddenly speeded up. For several seconds, Coke and the car raced along side by side. The two policemen in the car were looking at him but they couldn't see his face clearly. Coke raised his hand and waved casually. Then, the car speeded up again. In a few seconds it was far ahead him. Coke raced towards London. He knew exactly where he wanted to go.

He reached London just before 6. He drove to a block of small flats not far from the river in the south east. There was a light on in one of the ground floor flats. He went to the window and tapped softly. He was still standing at the window when the back door opened. When he looked up, a woman was standing there. «Come in, Ted. I've been expecting you», she said very softly. «I haven't got any right to ask you for help», he said after a pause. «But there's nobody else you can go to, is there? You'd better come in», she answered calmly.

2. Baxter caught a very early train to London. When he got to Scotland Yard the Chief Inspector was waiting for him. When Baxter went into his office, he was sitting at his desk and looking at a photograph. «Perhaps it was a good thing you didn't catch Coke after all», he said suddenly. Baxter stared at him in surprise. «What do you mean, sir? I don't understand». «I have a picture here of a man who knew Coke in the army. He was also a witness at Coke's trial. I've been interested in the man for some time now. Perhaps we'll be able to find out more about him now that Coke's free», the Inspector said, and gave Baxter the photograph. «This is the man. Watch him. Follow him everywhere!» Baxter looked at the man in the photo carefully. It was Eric Masters.

3. «You really shouldn't help me, Kate. It's against the law», Coke said. He and the young woman were sitting in her kitchen. He was eating breakfast hungrily. Kate didn't say anything. «I mean, everybody thinks I'm a spy», he went on. «But I don't think so», she finally said. Coke finished his breakfast silently. Then he said, «You were the only person who ever believed I was innocent. That's why I came to you. Who else will help me?» «Help you to do what, Ted?» Kate asked. «Help me to find the real spies», he answered slowly.

10.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. Coke saw the headlights...

a) of another motor bike behind him;

b) of another police car in front of him,

c) of another police car behind him.

2. Coke drove to a block of flats in...

a) the south east;

b) south west;

c) north east.

3. The Chief Inspector wanted Baxter...

a) to follow Coke everywhere;

b) to follow Masters everywhere;

c) to arrest Masters.

4. Coke came to Kate because...

a) he wasn't afraid of her;

b) she believed he was innocent;

c) she was brave.

10.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. What did Coke see in his mirror?

2. Why did Coke wave his hand?

3. Where did Coke drive to when he got to London?

4. What did the woman say?

5. What photo was the Chief Inspector looking at?

6. Why was it a good thing they didn't catch Coke?

7. Why did Coke come to Kate?

8. What was Coke going to do?

10.5.4. Compose the plan for this part of the story.

10.6. Scanning practice

10.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind. 1. What was a man charged with?

2. Who defended the criminal?

3. What was the verdict of the jury?

10.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

A strange sentence

A man was brought up before a judge and charged with burglary. He had cut a hole in the side of a tent, had put his head, his right arm and his right shoulder through the hole and had stolen several things belonging to the people sleeping in the tent.

The lawyer of the defendant said that as the man had not entered the tent, he couldn't be convicted of burglary and ought to be set free. The judge however said that while the man as a whole had not committed burglary, his head, his right arm and his right shoulder had.

The jury brought in a verdict of guilty against these parts, which were sentenced to two years imprisonment with hard labour in the state prison. All the rest of the man was found not guilty and discharged.

(142 words)

10.6.3. Answer the questions in 10.6.1. (Books closed.)

10.7. Listening practice

10.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after listening to the text.

1. Where was Mr Brigs yesterday at 2 o'clock?

2. Where is his girl-friend?

3. Where was he on January 12?

10.7.2. Listen to the dialogue.

10.7.3. Answer the questions in 10.7.1.

10.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text.

stove — печь

get on fire — загореться

grab — схватить

thief — вор

awful — ужасный

10.7.5. Listen to the story. Be ready to give the contents of it in Russian.

10.7.6. Tell the contents of the story as close to the text as possible.

10.8. Time for fun

10.8.1. Read the following jokes. Try to retell them. You may do it in Russian.

1. A dangerous criminal had escaped, so the police issued the usual photographs: left profile, front view, and right profile. A few days later they received the following telegram from an Irish detective: «Have captured the fellow on the left, and the fellow in the middle, and I'm going soon to get the fellow on the right as well».

2. BARRISTER (speaking to a witness): I want you to tell only the truth, for everything is of importance. How far were you standing from the place of the accident?

WITNESS (without a moment's hesitation): Just four yards, two feet and six inches. BARRISTER (slightly taken aback): I'd like you to tell me how you managed to be so exact. WITNESS: Well, I expected some fool to put me this question and I thought if fit to measure the distance.

? 10.8.2. There's a word missing from each of these proverbs. Choose the correct one from the three possibilities. Translate them.

1. An Englishman's home is his ... (security/ castle/ palace)

2. Let sleeping dogs ... (sleep/dream/lie)

3. Many ... make light work. (servants/hands/ cooks)

4. It takes all sorts to make a ... (world/war/ salad)

5. Prevention is better than ... (cure/punish-ment/medicine)

6. ...is thicker than water. (coffee/blood/soup)

7. A miss is as good as a ... (mister/mile/wife)

8. Birds of a ... flock together. (family/cage/ feather)

9. It's no use crying over ... milk. (sour/spilt/tinned)

10. ... begins at home. (charity/learning/love)


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