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Lesson 10 WEATHER

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INTRODUCTORY READING AND TALK

The naughtiest thing in the worid is the weather. It's like a capricious woman who always does the opposite to what you ask her.

When you want to go for a picnic in the open air you ask the skies to remain clear and the day to be fine. Nervously you switch on the radio and listen to the weather forecast. You tremble with joy to hear that it'll stay warm and dry with bright sunshine, and moderate breeze. Your imagination draws a hot summer afternoon and your­self saying: 'Nice weather we are having today!' You take a lot of food and no warm clothes, go to the countryside but... do not get anything sunny.

You get it cloudy and cool with intermittent drizzle which ends with a thundery shower. The sky is so heavily cast with clouds, the downpours follow one another with such frequency, the rumbling of thunder and Hashes of lightning are so frightening that you've got no illusions left. You throw away the food and go back hungry and an­gry. And when you are already approaching your home soaked to the skin it suddenly brightens up. Oh, Goodness!

Each summer every student survives through the best time of his or her life — an examination session. Then many students plead: 'Please, weather, stay cloudy, chilly or even cold with brisk northerly wind and nun torrents leaving pools and peddles everywhere, espe­cially on the playground. And I'll be a good student'. The radio promises: 'Patchy light drizzle with showery outbreaks of rain.' But the "patch" is never in the right place. Instead the skies send heat and excellent weather for a sun tan. Everyone knows that sun tan never helps at exams.

And it is always like this. When you go skiing and want to have frosty weather with a lot of snow, it starts thawing and your skis sink in the slush. Instead of a snowfall and hoarfrost on the trees you get excellent sleet. The weather does not feel any pangs of re­morse.

When you go in the car to the country, enjoying nice weather and a beautiful view of a rainbow in the blue sky, you pay no atten­tion to some haze on the horizon. Some time later a thin mist in the distance turns into a thick fog and you spend a lovely two hours in­stead of one at the steering wheel.

When you plant some much-cared-for flowers in the garden, ei­ther a ground frost or a hail storm kills them. Digging muddy flower­beds one feels exasperated: 'What beastly weather we've had this week! And it keeps nasty! Wretched!'

To tell the troth, sometimes the weather is ashamed and turns for the better. But not always. More often it sticks to its own pattern and after a short warm spell turns bad again. Why is it always like this? Maybe, because the weather likes surprises and wants to bring in adventures to our life, breaking the boring routine with marvel­lous happenings?

1. Do you agree that the weather is like a capricious woman? Prove your point.

2. Say what weather you like best of all and why.

3. Do you listen to the weather forecasts? Do you trust them? Have you heard the weather forecast for today? Was it right?

4. Look at the pictures and say what the weather Is like in them.

5. Explain how you understand the proverb.

Whether the weather is cold

Or whether the weather is hot

We'll weather the weather

Whatever the weather

Whether we like it or not.

○ TEXT

Fog on the Barrow-Downs

(Extract from the book by J. R. R. Tolkien "The Lord of the Rings". Abridged)

That night they heard no noises. But either in his dreams or out of them, he could not tell which, Frodo heard a sweet singing run­ning in his mind;1 a song that seemed to come like a pale light be-hind a grey rain-curtain.

The vision melted into waking;2 and there was Tom whistling; and the sun was already slanting down the hill and through the open window.

After breakfast they made ready to say farewell, as nearly heavy of heart3 as was possible on such a morning; cool, bright, and clean under a washed autumn sky of thin blue. The air came fresh from the North-West.

They rode off along a path and looked out from the hill-top over lands under the morning. It was now as clear and far-seen as it had been veiled and misty when they stood upon the knoll in the Forest. They took a deep draught of the air.4

Their way wound along the floor of the hollow, and round the green feet of a steep hill into another deeper and broader valley. As they journeyed the sun mounted, and grew hot. Each time they climbed a ridge the breeze seemed to have grown less. When they caught a glimpse of the country westward the distant Forest seemed to be smoking, as if the fallen rain was steaming up again. A shadow now lay round the edge of sight, a dark haze above which the sky was like a blue cap.5 On that side the hills were higher and looked down upon them; and all those hills were crowned with green mounds, and on some were standing stones, pointing upwards like jagged teeth out of green gums. The view was somehow disquieting; so they turned from the sight and went down into the hollow circle. In the midst of it there stood a single stone, standing tall under the sun above, and at this hour casting no shadow. They set their backs6 against the east side of the stone. It was cool, as if the sun had had no power to warm it. There they took food and drink.

Riding over the hills, and eating their fill,7 lying a little too long; these things are, perhaps, enough to explain what happened. How­ever, that may be: they woke suddenly from a sleep they had never meant to take. The standing stone was cold, and it cast a long pale shadow. The sun was gleaming through the mist; north, south, and east, the fog was thick, cold and white. The air was silent, heavy and chill.

The hobbits8 sprang to their feet in alarm, and ran to the western rim. They found that they were upon an island in the fog. Even as they looked out in dismay towards the setting sun, it sank before their eyes into a white sea, and a cold grey shadow sprang up in the East behind. The fog rolled up to the walls and rose above them, and as it mounted it bent over their heads until it became a roof. They felt as if a trap was closing about them. They packed up as quickly as their chilled fingers would work.

Soon they were leading their ponies in single file9 over the rim and down the long northward slope of the hill, down into a foggy sea. As they went down the mist became colder and damper, and their hair hung lank and dripping on their foreheads. When they reached the bottom it was so cold that they halted and got out cloaks and hoods, which soon became bedewed with grey drops. Then, mounting their ponies, they went slowly on again. To prevent their getting separated and wandering in different directions they went in file, with Frodo leading. Suddenly Frodo saw a hopeful sign. On either side ahead a darkness began to loom through the mist; and he guessed that they were at last approaching the gap in the hills. 'Come on! Follow me!' he called back over his shoulder, and he hurried forward. His pony reared, and he fell off. When he looked back he found that he was alone: the others had not fol­lowed him.

'Sam!' he called. 'Pippin! Merry! Come along! Why don't you keep up?'10

There was no answer. Fear took him, and he ran back. As he struggled on he called again, and kept on calling more and more frantically. He was weary, sweating and yet chilled. It was wholly dark.

'Where are you?' he cried out miserably.

There was no reply. He stood listening. He was suddenly aware that it was getting very cold, and that up here a wind was beginning to blow, an icy wind. A change was coming in the weather. The mist was flowing past him in shreds and tatters. His breath was smok­ing.11 He looked up and saw with surprise that faint stars were ap­pearing overhead amid the strands of hurrying cloud and fog. Oat of the east the biting wind was blowing.

'Where are you?' he cried again, both angry and afraid.

'Here!' said a voice, deep and cold, that seemed to come out of the ground. 'I am waiting for you!'

'No!' said Frodo; but he did not run away. His knees gave,12 and he fell on the ground. Nothing happened, and there was no sound. Trembling he looked up in time to see a tall dark figure like a shadow against the stars. It leaned over him. He thought there were two eyes, very cold though lit with a pale light that seemed to come from some remote distance. Then a grip stronger and colder than iron seized him. The icy touch froze his bones, and he remembered no more.

When he came to himself again, for a moment he could recall nothing except a sense of dread. Then suddenly he knew that he was imprisoned, caught hopelessly; he was in a barrow. A Barrow-wight had taken him, and he was probably already under the dreadful spells of the Barrow-wights about which whispered tales spoke. Hedared not move, but lay as he found himself: flat on his back upon a cold stone with his hands on his breast.

As he lay there, thinking and getting a hold on himself, he no­ticed all at once that the darkness was slowly giving way:13 a pale greenish light was growing round him. He turned, and there in the cold glow he saw lying beside him Sam, Pippin, and Merry.

There was a loud rumbling sound, as of stones rolling and fal­ling, and suddenly light streamed in. A low door-like opening appeared at the end of the chamber beyond Frodo's feet; and there was Tom's head against the light of the sun rising red behind him.

'Come, friend Frodo!' said Tom. 'Let us get out on to the clean grass! You must help me bear them.' Together they carried out Merry, Pippin and Sam. To Frodo's great joy the hobbits stirred, robbed their eyes, and then suddenly sprang up. They looked about in amazement. 'What in the name of wonder?14 began Merry. 'Where did you get to, Frodo?'

'I thought that I was lost', said Frodo; 'but I don't want to speak of it.' But Tom shook his head, saying: 'Be glad, my merry friends, and let the warm sunlight heat now heart and limb! Cast off these cold rags! Run naked on the grass!'

The air was growing very warm again. The hobbits ran about for a while on the grass. Then they lay basking in the sun with the de­light of those that have been wafted suddenly from bitter winter to a friendly clime, or of people that, after being long ill, wake one day to find that they are unexpectedly well and the day is again full of promise.

Proper Names

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien ['³Án 'rÁnld 'rU@l tÁlkIn] — Джон Роналд Руэл Толкин

Barrow-downs [b{r@U,daUnz] — Курганы (Прим.: в тексте — место захоронения древних королей)

Frodo ['frÁd@U] — Фродо

Torn [tÁm] — Том

Sam [s{m] — Сэм

Pippin — ['pIpIn] — Пиппин

Merry — ['merI] — Мерри

Barrow-wight [b{r@U"waIt] — призрак Курганов

Vocabulary Notes

1. But either in his dreams or out of them, he could not tell which, Frodo heard a sweet singing running in his mind ... — Ho Фродо не знал, во сне или наяву, до него доносилось нежное пение ...

2. The vision melted into waking ... — Он проснулся, и видение растворилось ...

3. After breakfast they made ready to say farewell as nearly heavy of heart as was possible on such a morning ... — ... После завтрака они приготовились распрощаться; на душе у них почему-то было неспокойно, несмотря на такое утро ...

4. They took a deep draught of the air. — Они глубоко вдохнули воздух.

5. A shadow now lay round the edge of sight, a dark haze above which the sky was like a blue cap. — Теперь силуэт леса по всему краю окаймляла тёмная полоса, небо над которой было похоже на голубой колпак.

6. They set their backs against the east side of the stone. — Они сели, прислонившись спинами к той стороне камня, которая была обращена на восток.

7. ... and eating their fill... — ... и плотно пообедав ...

8. hobbits ['hÁbIts] — хоббиты

9. Soon they were leading their ponies in single file ... — Вскоре они уже цепочкой вели своих пони ...

10. Why don't you keep up? — Почему вы не поспеваете?

11. His breath was smoking. — При дыхании появлялся парок.

12. His knees gave ... — Ноги у него подкосились ...

13. As he lay there, thinking and getting a hold on himself, he noticed all at once that the darkness was showly giving way ... — Вот так лёжа, размышляя и приходя в себя, он вдруг заметил, что темнота медленно расступается ...

14. What in the name of wonder? — Что за чудеса?

                Comprehension Check

1.             What did Frodo hear in his sleep?

2.             Who was whistling?

3.             When did the hobbits start out?

4.             What was the country like?

5.             What was the weather like?

6.             Where did the hobbits stop and what for?

7.             Why did they fall asleep?

8.             What change in the weather did they see when they woke up?

9.             What did they do after waking up?

10. Why did Frodo hurry forward?

11. What was Frodo suddenly aware of?

12. What happened to Frodo?

13. What did Frodo realise when he came to himself again?

14. Whom did Frodo suddenly see?

15. Where did Tom and Frodo bear the others?

16. What was the weather like again?

Phonetic Text Drills

○ Exercise 1

Transcribe and pronounce correctly the words from the text.

Vision, whistling, slanting, farewell, knoll, to journey, to mount, mound, jagged, disquieting, to cast, to roll, northward, bedewed, to wander, sign, to rear, frantically, weary, to sweat, tatter, strand, dread, barrow-wight, chamber, naked, to bask, to waft.

○ Exercise 2

Pronounce the words and phrases where the following clusters occur.

1. plosive + r

Dreams, breakfast, made ready, bright, draught, and round, grew, breeze, crowned, green, trap, dripping, grey drops, prevent, approaching, breath, grip, great, cold rags, promise.

2. t+s/s+t

Sweet singing, that seemed, that side, standing stones, cast­ing, against, east side, white sea, mist, stronger, streamed.

3. plosive + 1

Clean, clear, glimpse, circle, explain, gleaming, quickly, stood listening, it leaned, clime, people, unexpectedly.

○ Exercise 3

Pronounce after the announcer and say what phonetic phenomenon the following word groups have in common:

1. Down the hill, upon them, on their foreheads, when they reached, in the hills, in the weather, on the ground, on the grass, then they lay, in the sun.

2. And the sun, round the green, found that, amid the strands, cold though lit, rubbed their eyes, and then, and the day.

3. Breakfast they made, that they, about them, reached the bottom, against the stars, thought there were, that the darkness, against the light, thought that, let the warm sun­light.

○ Exercise 4

Explain how the sound [f] affects preceding or following consonants.

1. Frodo, fresh, from, frantically, froze, friendly;

2. Hurried forward, that faint stars, and fog.

○ Exercise 5

Group the phrases below according to the varieties of false assimilation which may occur in them.

Breeze seemed, as they journeyed, was steaming up, was cold, was silent, as they looked, was closing, as their chilled fingers, was so cold, as he struggled, was suddenly aware, was smoking, with surprise, was slowly giving way.

○ Exercise 6

Transcribe and intone the sentences. Comment upon the intonation        pat­tern in imperative, exclamatory sentences and sentences with direct ad­dress.

‘\Sam!P he "called. ||

‘\Pippin! \Merry! 'Come a\long!P ||

‘I am \waiting for "you!P ||

‘\Cоmе, "friend "Frodo!’ "said "Tom. ||

But 'Tom 'shook his 'head "saying: 'Be \glad, my "merry "friends,

and 'let the 'warm 'sunlight ­heat now 'heart and \limb! || 'Cast

'off these 'cold \rags! || 'Run \naked on the "grass!' ||

EXERCISES

Exercise 1

Match the following definitions in the left column with the words in the right column. Find sentences with these words in the text.

                Verbs:

1.             shine with interrupted brightness                     A. melt

1.             appear indistinctly                                                               B. slant

2.             change to liquid condition by heat                   C. bedew

3.             move upwards                                                      D. gleam

4.             cover or sprinkle with dew or water  E. mount

5.             be or feel very cold                                                              F. loom

6.             diverge from a vertical or horizontal line          G. freeze

                Nouns:

1.             gentle wind                                                                           A. shadow

1.             climate                                                                    B. breeze 

2.             round portion of liquid such as hangs or        C. cloud

     falls separately                                                               

3.             grave-mound                                                        D. shred

4.             patch of shade, region not reached by sun E. barrow

5.             visible water vapour floating in air high           F. clime

     above the ground                                                          

6.             torn or broken piece                                            G.drop

                Adjectives:

1.             biting, harsh; piercingly cold                             A. damp

1.             of fairly low temperature, fairly cold B.icy

2.             slightly or fairly wet                                             C. chill

3.             unpleasantly cold to feel                                    D. bitter

4.             covered with ice, very cold                                E. lank

5.             indinstinct in form; of, or covered with,           F.cool     mist

6.             straight and limp                                                  G. misty

Exercise 2

Consult your dictionary and give all possible derivatives from the following words.

sun         mist         air

fog          wind       light

rain         dark        warm

Exercise 3

Find in the text one or more synonyms to the following words.

to smoke    a shred       to sink            cool

to rise        cold                     to journey              to cast

Exercise 4

Pick out from the text:

1) all verbs used with the nouns: sun, shadow, fog, rain;

2) all adjectives used with the nouns: fog, wind, morning, air, light, mist.

Exercise 5

Explain the difference between the synonyms or analogous words from the text.

to chill — to freeze

breeze — wind

to smoke — to steam up

shreds — tatters — strands

veil — haze — mist — fog

cool — chill — cold — icy — bitter

Exercise 6

Find the English equivalents to the following words or phrases.

A.

Пелена дождя, потянул свежий ветерок, было далеко видно, по низу лощины, солнце поднялось, стало жарко, после дождя поднимались испарения, отбрасывать тень, солнечные лучи пробивались сквозь дымку, заходящее солнце, туман подкатывал, закоченевшие пальцы, волосы обвисли, покрылись каплями, погода менялась, появи­лись звезды, темнота рассеивалась, забрезжил зеленова­тый свет, ворвался поток света, вставало красное солнце, нежиться на солнце.

В.

Звучать в сознании, попрощаться, с тяжёлым сердцем, прислониться спиной, плотно пообедать, вскочить на ноги, в ужасе, остановиться, сесть на пони, поспевать, склониться над кем-либо, издалека, выбраться, протереть глаза, сбросить лохмотья, нежиться на солнце.

Exercise 7

I. Give the first form of the following irregular verbs in the past tense.

rode, stood, wound, grew, caught, lay, set, woke, meant, sprang, sank, bent, felt, hung, froze, began, fell, lost.

II. Give the past form of the following regular verbs.

melt, wash, veil, mount, seem, crown, turn, roll, chill, halt, guess, rear, hurry, struggle, stream, waft.

Exercise 8

Write out into your notebook all expressions used to describe good or bad weather in the text.

Good weather

Bad weather

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercise 9

Fill in the gaps in the sentences with one of the expressions from the list. Change their form if necessary.

To run in one's mind, to give way, to catch a glimpse, in sin­gle file, to get separated, to come from some remote dis­ tance, to come to oneself, to be heavy of heart, to be crow­ned with, to grow less, to spring to one's feet, to be lost, to call back over one's shoulder, to freeze one's bones, to rub one's eyes.

1. The rain ceased and the wind ... ; soon everything had be­come quiet in nature.

2. Though we were sitting, we all ... when he appeared in the room: our astonishment was so great. No one could ex­pect it.

3. To manage everything we decided ... and meet again later; thus each one could carry out his task better.

4. Having wandered for an hour along the narrow streets, I re­alised at last that I....

5. The top of the mountain was ... a snowcap although there were green woods in blossom at the foot.

6. The tourists were slowly walking ... . It was a lot easier to walk like this across the marshy ground.

7. The voices of our friends ..., we did not understand how far away they were.

8. I had to leave Paris soon. I ... because it meant the end of my careless and happy life in the city which I started to love so much.

9. For a whole day Ronald could not get rid of a simple mel­ody which he heard on the radio in the morning: it was constantly ....

10. The operation was over and the patient was ... . At first he could not understand where he was.

11. Whithout turning around, he ... , but nobody answered. In surprise he turned his head and saw nobody.

12. Deadly fear ... . I could not move, I could not even stir a finger.

13. Though we passed the open door very quickly, I managed ... of the people who gathered in the director's office.

14. The medicine did a world of good: the disease started ... , which was almost a miracle.

15. The sight in front of me was so unbelievable, that I felt an impulse ... , but kept back, remembering that I was not a child.

Exercise 10

Find in the text sentences starting with the following words and express the same idea using different wording and grammar.

1. The vision melted into waking ...

2. It was now as clear and far-seen ...

3. Their way wound along ...

4. A shadow now lay round the edge of sight...

5. In the midst of it there stood a single stone ...

6. However, that may be ...

7. To prevent their getting separated ...

8. On either side ahead a darkness ...

9. As he straggled on he called again ...

10. He was suddenly aware that it was getting very cold ...

11. He thought there were two eyes ...

12. As he lay there, thinking and getting a hold             on him­self ...

13. To Frodo's great joy the hobbits stirred ...

14. Then they lay basking in the sun ...

Exercise 11

Retell the story of the hobbits' journey:

1. in the third person;

2. in the person of Frodo;

3. in the person of Tom.

Exercise 12

Discussion points.

1. What can you say about the hobbits' journey: was it difficult or pleasant, interesting or boring?

2. Can you say that the weather is one more character in the story? Prove your point.

3. Does the weather help the hobbits somehow or does it in­terfere somehow?

4. Do you think that the author tries to draw a parallel "nature — weather" in the story? Prove your point.

Exercise 13

I. Translate into Russian the following bits from the same book by J. R. R.

Tolkien.

1. They had been two days in this country when the weather turned wet. The wind began to blow steadily out of the West and pour the water of the distant seas (...) in fine drenching rain. By nightfall they were all soaked.

2. But before long the snow was falling fast, filling all the air, and swirling into Frodo's eyes.

While they were halted, the wind died down, and the snow slackened until it almost ceased. (...) But they had not gone more than a furlong when the storm returned with fresh fury. The wind whistled and the snow became a blinding blizzard.

3. Nothing happened that night worse than a brief drizzle of rain an hour before dawn. (...) Already the fog was thinning. (...) In the mid-morning the clouds drew down lower, and it began to rain heavily.

4. The sky was utterly dark, and the stillness of the heavy air foreboded the storm. Suddenly the clouds were seared by a blinding flash. Branched lighting smote dawn upon the east­ward hills.

5. The thunder was rumbling in the distance now. The light­ning flickered still, far off among the mountains in the South. A keen wind was blowing from the North again. The clouds were torn and drifting, and stars peeped out.

6. The hurrying darkness, now gathering speed, rushed up from the East and swallowed the sky. There was a dry splitting crack of thunder right overhead. Searing lightning smote down into the hills. Then came a blast of savage wind.

7. There was another crack of thunder, and then the rain came. In a blinding sheet, mingled with hail, it drove against the cliff, bitter cold.

II. Using some of the underlined words or expressions describe a rain­storm or a snowstorm you were caught in once.

Exercise 14

Study the Topical Vocabulaiy and add other analogous words to the follow­ing lists. Explain the difference in their meanings.

rainfall    snowfall                 wind

rain                         snowstorm            whirlwind

Exercise 15

Match the nouns with adjectives to make common phrases.

► Pattern: heavy rain, heavy snow, etc.

Nouns:   rain

wind

fog

snow

sky

air

Adjectives:            heavy                     bitter

biting                      chilly

strong                    cloudy

fresh                       brisk

thick                       drizzling

thin                         hot

cold                        piercing

bright                     southerly

clear                        swirling

chill                         misty

clean                       drenching

Exercise 16

Add the missing forms.

1.             north                      ...?...                        northerly

south                      southern                ...?...

east                         ...?...                        ...?...

west                        ...?...                        ...?...

2.             north-east             ...?...                        north-easterly

                north-west             north-western       ...?...

                south-east             ...?...                        ...?...

south-west            ...?...                        ...?...

Exercise 17

Choose the right word from a couple of similar looking ones. Change word forms if necessary.

1. (slush, sleet)

a) The ... under my feet was awful. I had an impression that I was walking through a muddy sea.

b) The rain changed into .... Wet snowflakes were falling on the ground and melted there.

2. (ice drift, snowdrift)

a) The path was hedged by two long .... They were like two mountain ranges.

b) The ... started at night. In the morning the children ran to the river to look at the huge blocks of ice drifting across the water.

3. (icing, icicle)

a) There was heavy... on the road and all cars were moving very slowly.

b) After a thaw there appeared ... on the edge of the roof; they looked like sparkling needles.

4. (frost, hoarfrost)

a) Tree branches were covered with ... and the forest looked enchanting and somewhat mysterious.

b) The ... was biting the nose and the cheeks. It was im­possible to stay long in the street.

5. (draught, drought)

a) Severe ... killed the crops. Not a drop of rain fell on the ground for a month.

b) When the door opened, the ... blew off the papers down on to the floor.

6. (to freeze, to be freezing)

a) In winter all rivers and lakes in these parts always ....

b) The temperature was quite low and I felt that I ....

7. (blizzard, drizzle)

a) Boring ... spoiled the day. It was too wet and dull.

b) The ... was blinding us. Snowflakes were swirling in the air.

8. (light, lightning)

a) There is not enough ... in the room. The table should be moved closer to the window.

b) The ... split the sky into two parts. A deafening thunder crack followed.

Exercise 18

I. Below you see examples of several weather forecasts from English newspapers. Read and translate them.

I.    General situation: Many eastern coastal areas of Eng­land will; stay cloudy and cool, with patchy light drizzle during the morning. Western parts of Wales and south-west England will be cloudy with showery outbreaks of rain, al­though western Wales will brighten up during the after­noon. The rest of England and Wales will stay warm and dry with hazy sunshine, although there will be a brisk eas­terly breeze. Showery rain over Northern Ireland will clear during the afternoon. Scotland will be dry with sunny peri­ods, but eastern coasts will be cloudy and western areas may have rain during the morning.

"The Independent"

II.    Cloud and outbreaks of rain over England and Wales will clear during the morning. The afternoon will be mostly dry with bright or sunny spells, although wintry showers will develop at times in the north and north-west.

Scotland and Nothern Ireland will have another cold day with sunshine and blustery showers expected. The

showers will be heavy in places and falling as snow over the high ground.

Outlook: Bright with wintry showers at times, especially in the north. Rain spreading eastwards on Monday.

"Daily Express"

III.    Forecast: A dry, sunny start over England and Wales, but there may be light showers adjacent to the southern North Sea. Western Scotland and Nothern Ireland will be­come cloudy during the morning with outbreaks of rain moving to these areas by midday. This weather will spread south-eastwards to all parts of Scotland, north-west Eng­land and north Wales by the evening. Temperatures: 8 C° (46 F°) in East Anglia, 10 C° (50 F°) in Nothern Ireland.

Outlook: Little change in southern and eastern parts of England during Tuesday and Wednesday. There will be cool nights with frost and possibly patchy fog, but diy with sunny spells during daylight hours. Early cloud and rain in north-western districts will gradually die out during Tuesday.                              

"The Independent"

IV.   Weather: England and Wales will start cloudy with out­breaks of rain. However, brighter, showery weather already over Scotland and Nothern Ireland will slowly spread south and east throughout the day. The showers will be heaviest and most frequent in the north, falling as sleet or snow over hills and mountains, with drifting occurring in places. It will feel cold in the blustery and strong westerly wind.

Outlook: Sunny intervals and showers are expected. Feeling colder than of late in the north-westerly wind.

"Daily Express"

II. Match the Russian phrases from list A with their English equivalents from list B.

A.

Местами дожди/туман; ожидается сухая тёплая погода; на востоке области пройдут сильные проливные дожди; на почве возможны заморозки; ветер северный, умеренный, 10—15 м/сек; в дальнейшем холодный характер по­годы сохранится; облачная, дождливая погода; к концу недели погода изменится.

В.

The showers will be heavy in the East; we are in for a warm dry spell; moderate northerly wind, 1—15 metres per second; a change in the weather by the end of the week; patchy rain/fog; the weather will stay cold; ground frosts are possible; cloudy and wet.

III. Make up your own weather forecast for the next day.

Exercise 19

I. Look at the following patterns, expressing one's delight with the weather or dislike of it. Translate them into Russian.

For good weather

For bad weather

It's absolutely marvellous!

It certainly is horrible.

Isn't it gorgeous!

Nasty day, isn't it?

It's so nice and hot!

Isn't it dreadful?

Personally I think it's so nice when it's hot, isn't it?

I hate rain.

I adore it. Don't you?

I don't like it at all. Do you?

 

II. Work in pairs. Use these patterns to respond to the following.

A.

Nice day, isn't it?

What a glorious morning!

Fancy such a day in December!

It's so nice when it's warm.

What a beautiful winter evening!

This breeze is so refreshing!

It's so surprisingly warm for this time of the year!

What a fine day we are having!

I love the sun. Isn't it wonderful?

B.

Dull morning, isn't it?

Nasty day, isn't it?

I hate snow.

What a horrible day!

The heat is unbearable.

I can't stand this wind.

The weather is turning bad.

Rain all day long. Isn't it dreadful?

It's pouring again. Isn't it wretched?

Exercise 20

Discuss with a partner the weather you are having at present. Choose questions and answers from the models given below.

Questions:

What do you think of the weather?

What's the weather outside?

I wonder what the weather is going to be like.

Will the weather keep?

Do you think it will clear up?

Do you think it is going to turn out fine?

What is the weather forecast for today?

Answers:

We are in for a spell of good weather.

It looks like rain.

The weather is turning bad.

It'll change for the better.

The weather is fine/nice/lovely/beautiful.

The weather is nasty/wretched/awful/dull.

The day is rainy/windy/bright/sunny.

The weather is favourable.

The sky is overcast/cloudy/clear.

It's snowing/pouring/raining/drizzling.

The wind is rising.

It has been raining on and off for ...

The fog is lifting.

Exercise 21

Compare the weather in your parts with the weather in Great Britain. Use the daily forecasts in British newspapers.

Exercise 22

Translate into English.

1. Утро началось с моросящего дождя, который посте­пенно усилился и к полудню перешел в сильный ливень.

2. Я слышала прогноз погоды на сегодня: днем солнечно и тепло, температура около 20 °С, ветер восточный, умеренный; ночью температура около нуля, на почве местами заморозки.

3. Зима наступает здесь в ноябре — начинают дуть север­ные ветры, из-за чего средняя температура становится ниже, выпадает первый снег.

4. Весной легкий ветер часто нагоняет облака. Небо за­тягивается тучами и погода портится.

5. Ожидается улучшение погоды — дождь прекратится и станет сухо и жарко.

6. В июле невыносимая жара привела к засухе. За месяц не выпало ни капли дождя.

7. Белые снежинки тихо кружили в воздухе и ложились на землю. К утру всё было завалено сугробами.

8. Первые лучи солнца пробились сквозь пелену тумана. К девяти туман начал рассеиваться.

9. Всходило солнце, дул теплый ветерок, над землёй курился туман.

10. Высокая ель отбрасывала тень, там можно было спас­тись от жары.

11. С неба падал мокрый снег, было холодно и сыро. Сапоги промокли, потому что под ногами тоже был талый снег.

12. После дождя прояснилось и на небе появилась много­цветная радуга. Хорошая примета.

13. Такой грозы я не припомню: гром, молния, сильные порывы ветра, а потом — град.

14. Было чудесное утро. Быстро встало солнце и иссушило капли росы на траве.

15. Сначала подмораживало. Ветви деревьев покрылись инеем. На дороге был сильный гололед. Потом начало оттаивать.

Exercise 23

Recall the weather on the day of 1) your entrance examination in English, 2) your last exam at school, 3) your last birthday. As you may be not quite sure of the weather on that day, use the models below to express hesita­tion.

As far as I remember ...

If my memory serves me right ...

I seem to remember ...

I am not sure about it, but ...

I can't be absolutely sure about it, of course, ...

If I remember correctly ...

Exercise 24

What is the weather like in different parts of Russia in spring, summer, autumn and winter?

Exercise 25

Say what mood in you prevails when 1) it is a cold winter day; 2) it is a hot summer night; 3) it is a warm spring evening; 4) it is a cool autumn mor­ning.

Exercise 26

Think for five minutes and write what you like to do in good and bad weather. Compare your activities with those written by other classmates. Choose the most original ideas.

Exercise 27

For hundreds of years people have accumulated weather lore. Do you be­lieve that there are signs in nature that may predict the weather? What are they? Is weather lore reliable? Comment on the pieces of weather lore below.

A snow year — a rich year.

Farewell frost — fair weather next.

Good winter — good summer.

Red sky at night, shepherd's delight; red sky in the morning, shepherd's warning.

When the dew is on the grass, rain will never come to pass. If bees stay at home, rain will soon come; if they fly away, fine will be the day.

A sunshiny shower won't last half an hour. Mackerel sky, mackerel sky, not long wet and not long dry.

Exercise 28

Work in groups and discuss with your classmates the topics you see below. Let one of you sum up what all of you have said.

1. Your favourite season or your favourite month.

2. The season or month you dislike.

3. The climate of Russia and Great Britain.

4. The climate in one of the countries where you have been.

Exercise 29

1. Read the poem from Winnie-the-Pooh by A. Milne.

Lines Written by a Bear of Very little Brain

On Monday, when the sun is hot,

I wonder to myself a lot:

'Now is it time or is it not,

That what is which and which is what?'

On Tuesday, when it hails and snows,

The feeling on me grows and grows

That hardly anybody knows

If those are these or these are those.

On Wednesday, when the sky is blue

And I have nothing else to do,

I sometimes wonder if it's true

That who is what and what is who.

On Thursday, when it starts to freeze

And hoarfrost twinkles on the trees,

How very readily one sees

That these are those — but whose are these?

On Friday —

II. Finish the poem above that was not completed by Winnie-the-Pooh.

Exercise 30

Fill in the gaps in the sentences below-with one of the following idioms: to catch the wind with a net, not to have the foggiest idea, to chase rainbows, a bit of blue sky, to be snowed under, to be on cloud nine, a storm in a tea cup, thunderous applause, to save for a rainy day, under the weather, to snowball, out of season.

1. When the audience like a pertomance, they show it with...

2. When you feel that you'll never finish your work, you're ...

3. When you are completely in the dark about something, you ...

4. When a project gets bigger and bigger, it...

5. When you are ecstatically happy, you are ...

6. When you feel unwell, you say that you are ...

7. When you pursue illusory goals or hopes, you ...

8. When you get yourself busy with a useless thing, you ...

9. When you lay up money for the future, you ...

10. When something is absolutely out of place, it is ...

11. When somebody gets some hope at last, he or she gets ...

12. When there is a lot of fuss about a small mishap, it is ...

Exercise 31

Translate the following proverbs and sayings or give their Russian equiva­lents. Explain their meaning and use them in 3-sentence situations of your own.

1. Every cloud has a silver lining.

2. It never rains but it pour's.

3. Rain before seven, fine before eleven.

4.             One swallow does not make a summer.

5.             Make hay while the sun shines.

6.             Sow the wind and reap the whirl-wind.

7.             Everything is good in its season.

8.             It is an ill wind that blows nobody any good.

Exercise 32

Translate the quotations and comment upon them.

'There is really no such thing as bad weather, only different kinds of good weather.'

John Ruskin

'When two Englishmen meet, their first talk is of the weather.'

Samuel Johnson

'Life, believe, is not a dream,

So dark as sages say;

Oft a little morning rain

Foretells a pleasant day!'

Charlotte Bronte

Exercise 33

0Role Play "Office Gossip after the Summer Vacation".

Setting:   The offices of the famous international corporation "Rich People Banks".

Situation: The first working day after a summer vacation. Lunch time. The people speak about their tours to different places during their leaves. They mainly speak about the weather which they were lucky or unlucky to have.

Characters:

Card I- Mr Merryweather, the boss's assistant. He stayed with his wife in a hotel on the Canary Islands for three weeks. The weather was very nice.

Caid II - Cleopatra, the secretary of the boss. She went hiking to the Pennine Mountains in Great Brit­ain. The weather was changeable.

Card III—IV — Nina and Tina, two typists. They went to­gether to a youth camp in France. The weather was warm and sunny.

Card V—VI — Ted and Ned, two computer programmers. They went fishing to the lakes of Norway. The

weather was rainy.

Card VII    — Mrs Ames, a clerk. She went to the US to visit her relatives in California. It was very hot.

Card VIII   — Mrs James, a clerk. She went to Canada with her husband to some sports events. The weather was cool, but they liked it.

Card IX     — Mr Flames, an accountant. He was unlucky not to have had a leave, but to have gone on business to Alaska. It was rather cold there.

Card X     — Mr. Blames, a business manager. He went travelling to China. It was hot but rainy.

WRITING

Exercise 1

Prepare to write a dictation. Learn the spelling of the italisized words and phrases from Introductory Reading and exercise 1 on page 274.

Exercise 2

Study the weather in your region for a whole week. Write down your obser­vations. Use the following models.

A.

Monday:                Occasional drizzle, bright spells, cold.

Tuesday:               Scattered showers, hail and snow over high   ground.

Wednesday:         Snow showers heavy in the North, sunny pe­ riods, cold.

Thursday:              Cloudy with showers of sleet or snow, rather                 cold.

Friday:    Some rain in the South at first, early fog,         frost patches.

Saturday:               Mainly dry, some bright intervals, milder.

Sunday: Rain at times, temperatures near normal.

B.

Monday:                Fog early, followed by dry sunny day.

Tuesday:               Rather cloudy with some rain, bright periods.

Wednesday:         Changeable with rain at times, near normal temperatures.

Thursday:              Rain in places, mainly dry later.

Friday:                    Showers at first, sunny spells, little change.

Saturday:               Rain chiefly in the North and West, sunny in­ tervals.

Sunday: Normal temperatures, max. 20 °C, sunshine.

Exercise 3

Write an essay on one of the following topics.

1. A Lot of People Like Winter (Summer) but I Hate It.

2. How the Weather Can Help People in Difficult Situations.

3. Once I Was Caught in a Rainstorm/Snowstorm.

4. How the Weather Affects Me.

5. I Don't Believe Weather Forecasts; I Believe Weather Lore.

Exercise 4

Write a summary of the following text.

Cold? Britain Is Actually Getting Hotter

Most Britons could be forgiven for thinking a new Ice Age is upon us. Small comfort, then, as we struggle through snowdrifts and cope with burst pipes, that the present cold is a sign the British climate is generally getting milder.

Ironically, most scientists now believe the short sharp shock of severe cold that has struck Europe for three winters running is an indicator that the world is growing warmer. The burning of fossil fuels is building up a blanket of carbon dioxide in the atmospere, creating a "greenhouse" effect.

Britain and Europe have certainly experienced weather this cold before. In the 17th century, the Thames froze solid so of­ten that it became a regular winter sports attraction. The weather then was so severe that it is sometimes referred to as the Little Ice Age. Even in the early 19th century, Britain's cli­mate was still colder than it is today. We still have a cherished picture of Charles Dickens's Christmases — although, in fact, snow at Christmas has been a rarity in southern England for 150 years.

Studies of temperature trends around the world show that it has been warming up since the middle of the 19th century. Most experts agree that this is a result of human activities. By burning coal and oil, we are putting carbon dioxide into the air. This acts like a blanket round the earth, trapping heat that would otherwise escape into space. As long as we keep burning fossil fuel, the trend is likely to continue. So why have we had such severe cold spells in Europe recently? According to re­searchers at the University of East Anglia, it is all part of the same process. When the climate of the globe changes, it doesn't do so evenly. Britain and Western Europe are just un­lucky in being in the path of a particularly significant wind shift.

By comparing the weather in different seasons, during the warmest and coldest years of the 20th century, the researchers have built up a picture of what is going on. Their key new dis­covery is that although spring, summer and autumn are all warmer, severe cold spells in winter are most likely over the whole of central Europe. So then, short cold spells mean it's generally getting warmer — but the bad news is it could get TOO warm. If the predictions come true — and the present changes are exactly in line with computer forecasts — within the next 40 or 100 years we shall see a change in climate as dra­matic as the shift which ended the last Ice Age.

Note:

A summary is the expression of the essence of some piece of writing in a condensed form. The main ideas of the piece should be presented clearly, concisely and precisely. The length of a summary makes up approximately one third of the length of the original source. Writing a summary includes seven stages:

1)             reading the original text to grasp the main idea;

2)             re-reading the passage to check up your understanding;

3)             selecting the essential points;

4)             linking the points in a logical order;

5)             writing a rough copy of a new concise text;

6)             comparing the summary with the original passage to see             whether all essentials are included;

7)             writing a fair copy of a summary.

In writing a summary only the information taken from the passage should be used. A summary does not contain repeti­tions, illustrative details, figures of speech, wordy phrases con­sisting of meaningless words. A good summary shows one's ability to understand and to present ideas.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

FAMILY LIFE

Text Cheaper by the Dozen

Mother took an active part in church and community work. She didn't teach a class, but she served on a number of committees. Once she called on a woman who had just moved to town, to ask her to serve on a fund-raising committee.

'I'd be glad to if I had the time,' the woman said. 'But I have three young sons and they keep me on the run. I'm sure if you have a boy of your own, you'll understand how much trouble three can be.'

'Of course,' said Mother. 'That's quite all right. And I do un­derstand.'

'Have you any children, Mrs. Gilberth?'

'Oh, yes.'

'Any boys?'

'Yes, indeed.'

'May I ask how many?'

'Certainly. I have six boys.'

'Six boys!' gulped the woman. 'Imagine a family of six!'

'Oh, there're more in the family than that. I have six girls, too.'

'I surrender,' whispered the newcomer. 'When is the next meet­ing of the committee? I'll be there, Mrs. Gilberth. I'll be there.'

One teacher in the Sunday school, a Mrs. Bruce, had the next-to-largest family in Montclair. She had eight children, most of whom were older than we. Her husband was very successful in busi­ness, and they lived in a large house about two miles from us. Mother and Mrs. Bruce became great friends.

About a year later, a New York woman connected with some sort of national birth control organisation came to Montclair from a local chapter. Her name was Mrs. Alice Mebane, or something like that. She inquired among her acquaintances as to who in Mont­clair might by sympathetic to the birth control movement. As a joke, someone referred her to Mrs. Bruce.

'I'd be delighted to cooperate,' Mother's friend told Mrs. Me­bane, 'but you see I have several children myself.'

'Oh, I had no idea,' said Mrs. Mebane. 'How many?'

'Several,' Mrs. Bruce replied vaguely. 'So I don't think I would be the one to head up any birth control movement in Montclair.'

'I must say, I'm forced to agree. We should know where we're going, and practise what we preach.'

'But I do know just the person for you,' Mrs. Bruce continued. 'And she has a big house that would be simply ideal for holding meetings.'

'Just what we want,' purred Mrs. Mebane. 'What is her name?'

'Mrs. Frank Gilberth. She's community-minded, and she's a career woman.'

'Exactly what we want. Civic minded, career woman, and — most important of all — a large house. One other thing — I suppose it's too much to hope for — but is she by any chance an organiser? You know, one who can take things over and drive ahead?'

'The description,' gloated Mrs. Bruce, 'fits her like a glove.'

'It's almost too good to be true,' said Mrs. Mebane, wringing her hands in ecstasy. 'May I use your name and tell Mrs. Gilberth you sent me?'

'By all means,' said Mother's friend. 'Please do. I shall be disap­pointed, if you don't.'

'And don't think that I disapprove of your having children,' laughed Mrs. Mebane. 'After all, many people do, you know.'

'Careless of them,' remarked Mrs. Bruce.

The afternoon that Mrs. Mebane arrived at our house, all of us children were, as usual, either upstairs in our rooms or playing in the back yard. Mrs. Mebane introduced herself to Mother.

'It's about birth control,' she told Mother.

'What about it?' Mother asked, blushing.

'I was told you'd be interested.'

'Me?'

'I've just talked to your friend, Mrs. Bruce, and she was cer­tainly interested.'

'Isn't it a little late for her to be interested?' Mother asked.

'I see what you mean, Mrs. Gilberth. But better late than never, don't you think?'

'But she has eight children,' said Mother.

Mrs. Mebane blanched, and clutched her head.

'My God,' she said. 'Not really.'

Mother nodded.

'How perfectly frightful. She impressed me as quite normal. Not at all like an eight-child woman.'

'She's kept her youth well,' mother agreed.

'Ah, there's work to be done, all right,' Mrs. Mebane said. 'Think of it, living right here within eighteen miles of our national birth control headquarters in New York City, and her having eight children. Yes, there's work to be done, Mrs. Gilberth, and that's why I'm here.'

'What sort of work?'

'We'd like you to be the moving spirit behind a Montclair birth control chapter.'

Mother decided at this point that the situation was too ludicrous for Dad to miss, and that he'd never forgive her if she didn't deal him in.

'I'll have to ask my husband,' she said. 'Excuse me while I call him.'

Mother stepped out and found Dad. She gave him a brief expla­nation and then led him into the parlour and introduced him.

'It's a pleasure to meet a woman in such a noble cause,' said Dad.

'Thank you. And it's a pleasure to find a man who thinks of it as noble. In general, I find the husbands much less sympathetic with our aims than the wives. You'd be surprised at some of the terrible things men have said to me.'

'I love surprises,' Dad leered. 'What do you say back to them?'

'If you had seen, as I have,' said Mrs. Mebane, 'relatively young women grown old before their time by the arrival of unwanted young ones. And population figures show... Why Mr. Gilberth, what are you doing?'

What Dad was doing was whistling assembly. On the first note, feet could be heard pounding on the floors above. Doors slammed, there was a landslide on the stairs, and we started skidding into the parlor.

'Nine seconds,' said Dad pocketing Ms stopwatch. 'They're short of the all-time record.'

'God's teeth,' said Mrs. Mebane. 'What is it? Tell me quickly. Is it a school? No. Or is it...? For Lord's sakes. It is!'

'It is what?' asked Dad.

'It's your family. Don't try to deny it. There're the spit and im­age of you, and your wife, too!'

'I was about to introduce you,' said Dad. 'Mrs. Mebane, let me introduce you to the family — or most of it. Seems to me like there should be some more of them around here someplace.'

'God help us all.'

'How many head of children do we have now, Lillie, would you say off hand?'

'Last time I counted, seems to me there was an even dozen of them,' said Mother. 'I might have missed one or two of them, but not many.'

'I'd say twelve would be a pretty fair guess,' Dad said.

'Shame on you! And within eighteen miles of national head­quarters.'

'Let's have tea,' said Mother.

But Mrs. Mebane was putting on her coat. 'You poor dear,' she clucked to Mother. 'You poor child.' Then turning to Dad. 'It seems to me that the people of this town have pulled my leg on two different occasions today.'

'How revolting,' said Dad. 'And within eighteen miles of na­tional headquarters, too.'

(Story by Frank B. Gilbreth, Junior;

and Ernestine Gilbreth Carey. Abridged)

HOME

Text 1

'Now, you'd better come upstairs with me and I'll show you your room. It used to be mine when I was small and it has lots of pictures of bears round the wall so I expect you'll feel at home. 'She led the way up a long flight of stairs, chattering all the time. Paddington followed closely behind, keeping carefully to the side so that he didn't have to tread on the carpet.

'That's the bathroom,' said Judy. 'And that's my room. And that's Jonathan's — he's my brother, and you'll meet him soon. And that's Mummy and Daddy's.' She opened a door. 'And this is going to be yours!'

Paddington nearly fell over with surprise when he followed her into the room. He'd never seen such a big one. There was a large bed with white sheets against one wall and several big boxes, one with a mirror on it. Judy pulled open a drawer in one of the boxes. 'This is called a chest of drawers,' she said. 'You'll be able to keep all your things in here.'

Paddington looked at the drawer and then at his suitcase. 'I don't seem to have very much. That's the trouble with being small — no one ever expects you to want things. '

(Extractfrom "A Bearfrom Peru in England" by Michael Bond)

Text 2

Our new home was altogether different. The night-nursery, which Jeanne and I shared, had its own bathroom and lavatory. This was promotion indeed. No longer a nurse to supervise but a children's maid, whose orders we could disregard. The day-nursery was on the other side of the house, and could be reached in three separate ways by running down the imposing main staircase, going through the dining-room, and running up a secondary staircase known as the green stairs; by running up the back staircase, which was outside the night-nursery door, along the white corridor on the second floor outside D's and M's bedroom,* and so down the higher flight of the green stairs; and by crossing the first-floor landing and slipping through the double drawing-room, which took about one minute.

* Dad and Mum' bedroom.

 

These last two methods were unpopular with the grown-up world, but when they were out the way a superb race could be set in motion between Jeanne and myself, one of us taking the first alter­native, the other the second. I generally found the second most suc­cessful. It was cheating to go through the drawing-room. Besides, someone might be dusting there. Angela now had her own little bedroom, on the same floor as M and D, and was therefore supe­rior. She did not join in the races.

I soon discovered that our lavatory window led on to a flat roof over the dustbins in the courtyard, and by climbing out of this win­dow, and creeping along this same flat roof, one could drop down over the dustbins and reach the coutyard. This was promptly dis­couraged. A pity. It damped adventure.

The garden at the back of the house made up for this disap­pointment. First a lawn, then, encircled by bushes, a parapet that looked down on to the lower garden several feet below, where there was a herbaceous border, and also vegetables. I would walk along the narrow parapet, eyes front, while Jeanne, below me in the lower garden, would try to climb through it unseen, and so surprise me. This she seldom achieved.

(Extract from "Myself When Young" by Daphne du Maurier)

Text 3

Michael gave the room a complacent glance.

'I've had a good deal of experience. I always design the sets my­self for our plays. Of course, I have a man to do the rough work for me, but the ideas are mine.'

They had moved into that house two years before and they had put it into the hands of an expensive decorator. The house was fur­nished in extremely good taste, with a judicious mixture of the an­tique and the modern and Michael was right when he said that it was quite obviously a gentleman's house. Julia, however, had in­sisted that she must have her bedroom as she liked, and having had exactly the bedroom that pleased her in the old house in Regent's Park which they had occupied since the end of the war she brought it over bodily. The bed and dressing-table were upholstered in pink silk, the chaise-longue and the armchair in Nattier blue; over the bed there were fat little gilt cherubs who dangled a lamp with a pink shade, and fat little gilt cherubs swarmed all round the mirror on the dressing-table. On satinwood tables were signed photographs, richly framed, of actors and actresses and members of the royal family. The decorator had raised his supercilious eyebrows, but it was the only room in the house-in which Julia felt completely at home. She wrote her letters at a satinwood desk, seated on a gilt Hamlet stool. Luncheon was announced and they went downstairs.

They sat at a refectory table, Julia and Michael at either end in very grand Italian chairs, and the young man in the middle on a chair that was not at all comfortable, but perfectly incharacter.

(Extract from "Theatre "by W. S. Maugham)

DAILY ROUTINE

Text 1

One Morning in Victor Wicox's Life

Monday, January 13th, 1986. Victor Wilcox lies awake, in the dark bedroom, waiting for his quartz alarm clock to bleep. It is set to do this at 6.45. How long he has to wait he doesn't know. He could easily find out by groping for the clock, lifting it to his line of vision, and pressing the button that illuminates the digital display. But he would rather not know. He feels as if he is the only man awake in the entire world.

The alarm clock cheeps.

He presses the snooze button* on the clock with a practised fin­ger and falls effortlessly asleep. Five minutes later, the alarm wakes him again, cheeping insistently like a mechanical bird. Vie sighs, hits the Off button on the clock, switches on his bedside lamp, gets out of bed and paddles through the deep pile of the bedroom carpet to the en suite bathroom.

* A button one the alarm clock; pressing the snooze button during the alarm action sequences will temporarily terminate the sequences for 8 or 9 minutes, then the sequences will start over again. Snooze function can be repeated as many times as desired within the 1 hour 59 minutes alarm sequences.

 

He does not greatly care for the dark purplish suite but it had been one of the things that attracted Marjorie when they bought the house two years ago — the bathroom, with its kidney-shaped handbasin and goldplated taps and sunken bath and streamlined loo and bidet. And, above all, the fact that it was 'en suite'.

Vic flushes the toilet and steps on to the bathroom scales. Ten stone, two ounces. Quite enough for a man only five feet, five and a half inches tall. Vic frowns in the mirror above the handbasin, thinking again of last month's accounts, the annual review... He runs hot water into the dark purple bowl, lathers his face with shaving foam from an aerosol can, and begins to scrape his jaw with a safety razor.

Vic wipes the tidemark of foam from his cheeks and fingers the shaven flesh appraisingly. Dark brown eyes stare back at him. Who am I? He grips the washbasin, leans forward on locked arms, and scans the square face. You know who you are: it's all on file at Divi­sion*.

* Division file: a file containing the minimum of information about an employee (cf. "личное дело").

 

Wilcox: Victor Eugene. Date of Birth: 19 Oct. 1940. Place of Birth: Easton, Rummidge, England. Marital Status: married (to Marjorie Florence Coleman, 1964). Children: Raymond (b. 1966), Sandra (b. 1969), Gary (b. 1972). Present Position: Managing Direc­tor, J. Pringle & Sons Casting and General Engineering.

That's who I am.

Vic grimaces at his own reflection, as if to say: somebody has to earn a living in this family.

He shrugs on his dressing-gown, which hangs from a hook on the bathroom door, switches off the light, and softly re-enters the dimly lit bedroom. Marjorie has, however, been woken by the sound of plumbing.

'Is that you?' she says drowsily; then, without waiting for an an­swer, 'I'll be down in a minute.'

'Don't hurry,' says Vic. Don't bother would be more honest, for he prefers to have the kitchen to himself in the early morning, to prepare his own simple breakfast and enjoy the first cigarette of the day undisturbed.

He picks up the Business Section of the Times and takes it into the kitchen. While the kettle is boiling he scans the front page.

The kettle boils. Vic makes a pot of strong tea, puts two slices of white bread in the toaster, and opens the blinds on the kitchen win­dow to peer into the garden. A grey, blustery morning, with no frost. One morning not long ago he saw a fox walking past this same win­dow.

Vic has eaten his two slices of toast and is on his third cup of tea and first cigarette of the day when Marjorie shuffles into the kitchen in her dressing-gown and slippers. She carries the Daily Mail, which has just been delivered.

' Shall I do you a bit of bacon?' says Marjorie.

'No, I've finished.'

Vic takes the Daily Mail. The tempo of his actions begins to ac­celerate. He strides through the kitchen, where Marjorie is listlessly loading his soiled breakfast things into the dishwasher, and runs up the stairs. Back in the en suite bathroom, he briskly cleans his teeth and brushes his hair. He goes into the bedroom and puts on a clean white shirt and a suit. He has six business suits, which he wears in daily rotation. Today is the turn of the navy-blue pinstripe. He se­lects a tie diagonally striped in dark tones of red, blue and grey. He levers his feet into a pair of highly polished black calf Oxfords*.

* Walking shoes laced above the instep.

 

When he comes downstairs again, Marjorie helps him on with his camelhair overcoat. 'When will you be home?' she inquires.

'I don't know. You'd better keep my dinner warm.'

She closes her eyes and tilts her face towards him. He brushes her lips with his.

Vic passes through the glazed porch and out into the open air. The cold wind ruffles his hair and makes him flinch for a moment. As he approaches the garage door it swings open as if by magic — in fact by electricity, activated by a remote-control device in Vic's pocket. He backs the car out, shutting the garage door with another touch on the remote control. Vic puts the automatic gear level into Drive, and glides away.

Now begins the best half-an-hour of the day, the drive to work. Vic swings on to the motorway, going north-west, and for a few miles gives the Jaguar its head, moving smoothly up the outside lane at 90.

Vic is very near his factory now. He turns down Coney Lane and reaches the main entrance. The barrier is raised and he drives to his personal parking space.

Vic pushes through the swing doors to the reception lobby.

'Good morning, Vic.' His secretary, Shirley, smirks from be­hind her desk.

'Morning, Shirley. Make us a cup of coffee, will you?'

He hangs up his camelhair coat in the anteroom, shrugs off the, jacket of his suit and drapes it over the back of a chair. He sits down at his desk and opens his diary. He leafs through the file of corre­spondence in his Intray. He lights a cigarette, inhales deeply, and blows two plumes of smoke through his nostrils. Through walls and windows comes a muffled compound noise of machinery and traf­fic, the soothing, satisfying sound of men at work.

(Extract from "Nice Work" by David Lodge. Abridged)

Discussion points.

1. Vic grimaces at his own reflection. What kind of grimace can it be? Can you imitate it and show it to the class?

2. Vic prefers to remain alone in the morning. What about you?

3. What kind of person is Vic? Prove your point.

4. Imagine what else Vic will do on this day. How will his day end?

Text 2

One Morning in Robyn Penrose's Life

Robyn rises somewhat later than Vic this dark January Monday. Her alarm clock, a replica of an old-fashioned instrument pur­chased from Habitat, with an analogue dial and a little brass bell on the top, rouses her from a deep sleep at 7.30. Unlike Vic, Robyn in­variably sleeps until woken. Then worries rush into her conscious­ness, as into his; but she deals with them in a rational, orderly man­ner. This morning she gives priority to the fact that it is the first day of the winter term, and that she has a lecture to deliver and two tu­torials to conduct. She always feels a twinge of anxiety at the begin­ning of a new term. She sits up in bed for a moment, doing some complicated breathing and flexing of the abdominal muscles, learned in yoga classes, to calm herself.

She was born, and christened Roberta Anne Penrose, in Melbourn, Australia, nearly thirty-three years ago, but left that country at the age of five to accompany her parents to England. Robyn had a comfortable childhood. She attended an excellent grammar school which she left with four A grades at A-level. Though urged by the school to apply for a place at Oxbridge, she chose instead to go to Sussex University.

Robyn kicks off the duvet and gets out of bed. She goes to the window, pulls back the curtain, and peers out. She looks up at the grey clouds scudding across the sky. A gust of wind rattles the sash window and the draught makes Robyn shiver. Clutching herself, she skips to the door from rug to rug, like a Scottish country dancer, across the landing and into the bathroom. She pulls the nightdress over her head and steps into the bath, not first pulling the chain of the toilet because that would affect the temperature of the water coming through the showerhead on the end of a flexible tube, with which she now hoses herself down. She steps from the bath, stretch­ing for a towel in one of those ungainly postures so beloved of Im­pressionist painters.

Robyn, a dressing-gown over her underclothes and slippers on her feet, descends the short dark staircase to the ground floor and goes into her narrow and extremely untidy kitchen. She lights the gas stove, and makes herself a breakfast of muesli, wholemeal toast and decaffeinated coffee. The sound of the Guardian dropping on to the doormat sends her scurrying to the front door. Robyn scans the front-page headline of the Guardian, but does not linger over the text beneath. She puts her soiled breakfast things in the sink, already crammed with the relics of last night's supper, and hurries upstairs.

Robyn straightens the sheet on the bed, shakes and spreads the duvet. She sits at her dressing-table and vigorously brushes her hair, a mop of copper-coloured curls. Now she robs moisturizer into her facial skin as protection against the raw wintry air outside, coats her lips with lip-salve, and brushes some green eyeshadow on her eye­lids. Her simple cosmetic operations completed, she dresses herself in green tights, a wide brown tweed skirt and a thick sweater loosely knitted in muted shades of orange, green and brown. She takes from the bottom of her wardrobe a pair of half-length fashion boots in dark brown leather and sits on the edge of the bed to pull them on.

Robyn goes into her long narrow living-room, which also serves as her study. She lifts from the floor a leather bag, and begins to load it with the things she will need for the day.

Returning to the kitchen, Robyn turns down the thermostat of the central heating and checks that the back door of the house is locked and bolted. In the hall she wraps a long scarf round her neck and puts on a cream-coloured quilted cotton jacket. Outside, in the street, her car is parked, a red six-year-old Renault Five. Robyn turns the ignition key, holding her breath as she listens to the starter's bronchial wheeze, then exhales with relief as the engine fires.

She drives through the gates of the University, parks her car in one of the University's car parks, and makes her way to the English Department. She passes into the foyer of the Arts Block. There are several students slouching against the wall, or sitting on the floor, outside her room. Robyn gives them a wry look as she approaches, having a pretty good idea of what they want.

'Hallo', she says, by way of a general greeting as she fishes for her door key in her coat pocket. 'Who's first?'

Eventually they are all dealt with, and Robyn is free to prepare for her lecture at eleven. She opens her bag, pulls out the folder containing her notes, and settles to work.

(Extractfrom "Nice Work" by David Lodge. Abridged)

Discussion points.

1. How does Robyn's morning differ from Vic's?

2. What kind of person is Robyn? Prove your point.

3. Imagine what else Robyn will do on this day. How will her day end?

Text3

The Day before You Came

I must have left my house at eight because I always do,

My train, I'm certain, left the station

Just when it was due.

I must have read the morning paper going into town,

And having gotten through the editorial,

No doubt, I must have frowned.

I must have made my desk around a quarter after nine,

With letters to be read

And heaps of papers waiting to be signed.

I must have gone to lunch at half past twelve or so,

The usual place, the usual bunch,

And still on top of this, I'm pretty sure, it must have rained

The day before you came.

I must have lit my seventh cigarette at half past two

And at that time I never even noticed I was blue,

I must have kept on dragging through the business of the day

Without even knowing anything,

I hid a part of me away;

At five I must have left, there's no exception to the rule,

A matter of routine — I've done it ever since

I've finished school.

A train back home again —

Undoubtedly I must have read the evening paper then.

Oh, yes, I'm sure my life was well within it's usual frame

The day before you came

I must have opened my front door at eight o'clock or so

And stopped along the way to buy some Chinese food to go.

I'm sure I had my dinner watching something on TV —

There's not, I think, a single episode of Dallas that

I did not see. I must have gone to bed around a quarter after ten:

I need a lot of sleep and so I like to be in bed by then;

I must have read a while the latest one by Marilyn French

Or something in that style,

It's funny, but I had no sense of living without aim

The day before you came.

And turning out the light I must have yawned

And snuggled up for yet another night,

And rattling on the roof

I must have heard the sound of rain

The day before you came.

(A Song by ABBA)

DOMESTIC CHORES

Text 1

Dishwashers

Over the last fifty years housework has been made considerably easier by the invention of an increasing number of labour-saving de­vices and appliances, mostly electrical, which have drastically cut down the amount of time and effort previously needed to do the everyday household chores. For many years now there have been vacuum cleaners, electric irons, washing machines and floor-polishers; now we have electric potato-peelers and even electric carving knives. We can buy cookers that will switch themselves on and produce a meal that is ready to eat the minute we-get back home. If we have one of those electric pop-up toasters, we can make toast at the breakfast table itself. Mashed potatoes can be quickly and effortlessly made with a mixer, which usually has a variety of attachments that enable you to make all sorts of other more exotic things like fresh orange juice or real mayonnaise. And a tumble-drier can save you from the frustration of hanging out the washing only to have to bring it in again ten minutes later when menacing storm-clouds loom over.

Probably the most important piece of electrical equipment to become widely used in the last twenty years is the dishwasher. Washing up by hand is not only a time-consuming task (it can take longer than eating the meal itself), but also an extremely boring one, particularly when you are on your own, and it also ruins your hands. Dishwashers come in a range of different sizes and models to suit your purse, the size of your family, and the layout of the kitchen. They can be stood on the floor or on a worktop, or they can be mounted on a wall. And their capacity ranges from six to twelve place-settings. If you buy one, it is worth having it plumbed into the main water supply to save you having to connect robber pipes to your taps each time you use it. All you have to do is load the dirty dishes, glasses and cutlery into the racks inside the machine, pour in some special detergent powder, close the door and switch it on; it does the rest by itself while you get on and do more interesting things. Of course, most dishwashers can't accommodate large saucepans and frying pans, and you do have to scrape all scraps of solid food from the dishes before you put them in to avoid blocking the filters, but the machine will wash almost everything else and get rid of even the most stubborn egg and lipstick stains. When the washing cycle is over, the machine dries the plates and glasses with its own heat, and indeed they can be left inside until they are needed for the next meal.

If you buy a medium-sized dishwasher, you probably won't need to wash up more than once a day. The drawback of this, of course, is that you have to have enough dishes, cutlery, etc. to last three or four meals. So it can happen that people who buy a dish­washer have to buy new china and glasses, either because they ha­ven't got enough or because the ones they've got don't fit the ma­chine. This extra expense may not only be necessary, but also desir­able, for one has to remember that dishwashers can be quite noisy. This means that many people prefer only to use their machine once a day, preferably last thing at night, when you can just shut the kitchen door on it and go to bed.

(From "Meanings into Words" by Adrian Doff, Christopher Jones and Keith Mitchell)

I. Read the text "Dishwashers" and express your agreement or disagree­ment with the following claims about dishwashers.

1. They cannot be stood on the floor.

2. You can hang them on the wall.

3. You cannot use them for washing cutlery.

4. You do not need any detergent powder for washing up.

5. There is a special place in any dishwasher for large sauce­pans and frying pans.

6. They get rid of most stubborn stains and of scraps of solid food.

7. Hot air flowing through dishes dries them.

8. Dishwashers can be quite noisy.

II. Work in pairs. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of having a dishwasher. One of you prefers to have it while the other is not fond of electrical appliances in general.

III. Work in pairs. Explain to each other in you own words the advantages and disadvantages of:

1. vacuum cleaners;

2. automatic cookers;

3. electric toasters;

4. mixers.

IV. Work in groups. Give your opinion on the use of labour saving devices. If you are in favour of this sort of appliances, use:

To make housework considerably easier; to cut down the amount of time and effort; to save one a lot of bother; labour and time consuming task; to do the everyday household chores; to switch themselves on/off; to save smb. from doing smth; extremely boring; to ruin one's hands; can be stood on the floor or on a worktop; can be mounted on a wall; to load the dirty dishes, etc. into; the racks inside the machine; pour in some detergent powder; to do the rest by itself; to dry the plates, etc.; the washing cycle; to be worth buying;

If you are not in favour of them, use:

To suit one's purse; the layout of one's kitchen; can't accom­modate large saucepans and frying pans; to have to scrape all scraps of solid food from the dishes; to block the filters; to have enough dishes, cutlery, etc. to fit the machine; extra expense, noisy; get out of order; to be not worth buying; to repair; to take away much use­ful and valuable physical activity; to need exercise.

Text 2

So great is our passion for doing things ourselves, that we are becoming increasingly less dependent on specialized labour. No one can plead ignorance of a subject any longer, for there are countless do-it-yourself publications. Armed with the right tools and materials, newly-weds gaily embark on the task of decorating their own homes. Men of all ages spend hours of their leisure time installing their own fireplaces, laying out their own gardens; build­ing garages and making furniture. Some really keen enthusiasts go so far as to build their own record players and radio transmitters. Shops cater for the do-it-yourself craze not only by running special advisory services for novices, but by offering consumers bits and pieces which they can assemble at home.

Wives tend to believe that their husbands are infinitely resource­ful and versatile. Even husbands who can hardly drive a nail in straight are supposed to be born electricians, carpenters, plumbers and mechanics. When lights fuse, furniture gets rickety, pipes get clogged, or vacuum cleaners fail to operate, wives automatically as­sume that their husbands will somehow put things right. The worst thing about the do-it-yourself game is that sometimes husbands live under the delusion that they can do anything even when they have been repeatedly proved wrong. It is a question of pride as much as anything else.

(Extract from "Developing Skills" by L. G.Alexander)

SHOPPING FOR FOOD

Text Sweet Sixteen

Sixteen soft pink blankets fold inwards over sixteen soft warm smiling babies. Sixteen dark-haired young mothers meet their six­teen babies' soft smiling mouths in a kiss.

Naomi looks round to see the cluster of other mothers, like her­self, mesmerised by Granada TV Rental's windows*. The cluster breaks, and its various components span out across the cool maible floor.

* Granada TV Rental — the name of a supermarket.

 

Lucy strains to stand up in her pushchair. Naomi eases her out of the canvas straps and settles her on the red seat of the silver trol­ley. She pauses momentarily, to decide which is to be the first aisle of the journey; should she start with soft drinks, vegetables, frozen foods, tins — she decides on fruit juice.

As they wheel past the rack of special-offer Mars bars, Naomi gently deflects Lucy's outstreched hand, her thumb briefly stroking the soft palm of Lucy's hand. I could do the shopping with my eyes shut, thinks Naomi, once a week for how many weeks, everything always in the same place. She turns the trolley to the right, to the fridge where the pineapple juice cartons — she stops. The open maw of the fridge gapes. It is empty. Ah well. Perhaps they have run out of cartons of fmit juice.

She decides to do dairy products next; cream, butter, some yo­ghurt — but instead, on the racks where the dairy products used to be, she finds pizzas, steak and kidney pies in transparent wrappings, and further on packets of frozen raspberries. Something is wrong. She begins to collect, feeling uneasy that it isn't in the order of her choice, worried that if she leaves things now to go on to another aisle, they will have disappeared when she gets back.

She wheels on, to where she expects to find the vegetable racks: the net bags of apples, avocados. But instead there are long spa­ghetti packets, rice, curled pasta. Again she collects, panic begin­ning to rise. She mustn't show it to Lucy, who is happy being wheeled at such sightseeing speed.

Naomi makes confidently for the cold meat counter; it is dark, piled up with towers of soft toilet paper; the plastic box where scraps of meat were sold cheaply, the ends of cuts, is upside down, empty. For the first time she notices the other women. They walk fast, their heads slightly bent, cradling highpiled baskets, anxiety on their faces, grabbing cereals, bread, soap powders, cleansers, hurrying past pensioners, running, running.

Lucy now has a fist in her. mouth, enjoying the game.

Naomi speeds up to join the pace, taking what she can whe­rever she can, until she arrives at the back of the floor space, at the point where the soft drinks used to be. Naomi gasps. The once smooth space is now a raw gash, copper cables twisting like thick muscle fibre, clinging to the broken brick and plaster gaps in the walls.

Naomi hears a voice saying. Nothing is where it was. Lucy gig­gles and she realises that she has spoken out loud. She looks round. No one seems to have heard her. They are all too busy. Naomi looks down at the trolley. It is full of everything she has meant to buy, but none of it is in the right order.

Naomi wheels the trolley slowly towards the cash tills. Lucy, sensitive to the change in pace, stops giggling; she is now pale and still. Naomi joins a queue at a cash till, watching the other women.

Naomi stands behind a woman who fumbles for her cheque book. Naomi watches paper bags, plastic carriers, boxes and baskets flash between the tills and the plate glass window.

Naomi's turn comes. She lifts a bottle of lemon and lime out of the trolley. The outside is sticky. Naomi moves her index and se­cond fingers to a dry part of the bottle, her hand slips, the bottle falls, its soft edge knocks against the rim of the conveyor belt and bursts.

Thick, bright green liquid squirts luminously back into the trol­ley, over tins of tuna fish. Lucy claps her hands in delight, and reaching into the trolley, she lifts a packet of white flour and drops it with a dull thud on the floor. A white cloud powders the feet of the women. Lucy giggles. Naomi feels a cloud of answering laughter rise in her, tries to keep it down, looks up and catches the eye of the woman queuing behind her. The woman smiles, ruffles Lucy's hair and then lifts a bag of tomatoes from her own baskets and hurls it overarm against the special offer of tea bags. Red seed drips down against the green boxes.

The women look at one another. Suddenly bits of flattened, squared ham fly free of their jellied, cellophane packets, duck pate bursts out of its blue pottery bowls, salt and vinegar crisps crackle underfoot, sliding through white cottage cheese.

The lights of the cash tills spark white, the women sitting at the money machines aren't sure which way to turn, one picks up a cu­cumber and slides it along the floor, into a welcoming pool of rasp­berry yoghurt.

Outside the plate glass window red and blue lights flash as pale men in dark blue peer through the window at all Christmas and birthday and anniversary celebrations in one.

Ten feet away, sixteen dark-haired mothers smile at their babies for the sixteenth time and enfold them in sixteen warm, pink blan­kets.

(Story by Michelene Wandor. Abridged)

I. Answer the questions.

1.             Where does Naomi see sixteen mothers first?

2.             Who is Lucy?

3.             How old can Lucy be?

4.             What aisle does Naomi choose to be the first one?

5.             Does the sight in front of her eyes meet her expectations?

6.             What does she decide to do next?

7.             What does Naomi see on the racks where the dairy products used to be?

8.             What does Naomi find on the vegetable racks?

9.             What kind of box does she find empty?

10. Does Naomi notice the other women?

11. Does Naomi manage to collect everything she has meant to buy?

12. What does Naomi see at a cash till?

13. What happens when Naomi lifts a bottle of lemon and lime?

14. Why does Lucy drop a packet of white flour?

15. How does the woman behind her react?

16. What do the other women start doing?

17. How do the women sitting at the cash tills react?

18. What do the phrases "red and blue lights flash" and "pale men in dark blue" mean?

19. Why is the story called Sweet Sixteen?

II. Discussion points.

1. Do you find the end quite unexpected?

2. Was it an abnormal reaction on the part of the customers?

3. What caused this sort of reaction, in your opinion?

SHOPPING FOR CONSUMER GOODS

Text 1

Christmas Presents

... on Christmas day we went into the lounge and opened our presents. I was dead disappointed when I saw the shape of my pres­ent. I could tell at a glance that it didn't contain a single microchip. Ok, a sheepskin coat is warm but there's nothing you can do with it, except wear it. In fact after only two hours of wearing it, I got bored and took it off.

However, my mother was ecstatic about her egg timer; she said, 'Wow, another one for my collection.' Rosie ignored the chocolate Santa I bought her. That's 75 pence wasted! This is what I got:

3/4 length sheepskin coat (out of Little Woods catalogue)

Slippers (like Michael Caine wears, although not many people know that)

Swiss army knife (my father is hoping I'll go out into the fresh air and use it)

Tin of humbugs (supposedly from the dog)

Knitted Balaclava helmet (from Grandma Mole).

(Extract from "The Growing Pains of Adrian Mole " by Sue Townsend)

Discussion points.

1. Do you think that people who are closest to you expect more expensive presents?

2. Some people think that it is more preferable to receive a personal, carefully chosen gift however small and inexpen­sive, than a big, expensive gift or simply the gift of money. What do you think, and why?

3. Describe in detail an object that you always wanted as a child. Explain why you wanted it so badly, whether you eventually got it and how, and what the significance of it is for you now.

Text 2

A Shopping Expedition

The man in the gentlemen's outfitting department at Barkridge's held Paddington's hat at arm's length between thumb and fore­finger. He looked at it distastefully.

'I take it young ... er, gentleman, will not be requiring this any more, Madam?' he said.

'Oh yes, I shall,' said Paddington, firmly. 'I've always had that hat — ever since I was small.'

'But wouldn't you like a nice new one, Paddington?' said Mrs. Brown, adding hastily, 'for best?'

Paddington thought for a moment. 'I'll have one for worst if you like,' he said. 'That's my best one!'

The salesman shuddered slightly and, averting his gaze, placed the offending article in the far end of the counter.

'Albert!' He beckoned to a youth who was hovering in the back­ground. 'See what we have in size 4 7/8.' Albert began to rummage under the counter.

'And now, while we're about it,' said Mrs. Brown, 'we'd like a nice warm coat for the winter. Something like a duffle coat with toggles so that he can do it up easily, I thought. And we'd also like a plastic raincoat for the summer.'

The salesman looked at her haughtily. He wasn't very fond of bears and this one, especially, had been giving him queer looks ever since he'd mentioned his wretched hat. 'Has Madam tried the bar­gain basement?'* he began. 'Something in Government Surplus...'**

* A section of a shop set aside for special offeis, Li.e. goods at reduced prices. Not necessarily a basement.

** Government Surplus shops sprang up everywhere in England after the war. Originally they sold surplus military coats, shirts, boots, etc. Now they sell tough outdoor clothing, camping equipment, working clothes, etc. Very little of their stock is nowadays bought from the government.

 

'No, I haven't,' said Mrs. Brown, hotly. 'Government Surplus indeed! I've never heard of such a thing — have you, Paddington?'

'No,' said Paddington, who had no idea what Government Sur­plus was. 'Never!' he stared hard at the man, who looked away un­easily. Paddington had a very persistent stare when he cared to use it. It was a very powerful stare. One which his Aunt Lucy had taught him and which he kept for special occasions.

Mrs. Brown pointed to a smart blue duffle coat with a red lining. 'That looks the very thing,' she said.

The assistant gulped. 'Yes, Madam. Certainly, Madam.' He beckoned to Paddington. 'Come this way, sir.'

Paddington followed the assistant, keeping about two feet be­hind him, and staring very hard. The back of the man's neck seemed to go a dull red and he fingered his collar nervously. As they passed the hat counter, Albert, who lived in constant fear of his su­perior, and who had been watching the events with an open mouth, gave Paddington the thumbs-up sign.* Paddington waved a paw. He was beginning to enjoy himself.

* When a Roman gladiator had overcome another he was expected to ask the Emperor or senior person present at the games whether he was to kill his opponent or not. If the Emperor held his thumb down it meant 'kill him'. If the thumb pointed upward it meant 'spare him'. By extention, thumbs-up = life and hope.

 

He allowed the assistant to help him on with the coat and then stood admiring himself in the mirror. It was the first coat he had ever possessed. In Peru it had been very hot, and though his Aunt Lucy had made him wear a hat to prevent sunstroke, it had always been much too warm for a coat of any sort. He looked at himself in the mirror and was surprised to see not one, but a long line of bears stretching away as far as the eye could see. In fact, everywhere he looked there were bears, and they were all looking extremely smart.

'Isn't the hood a trifle large?' asked Mrs. Brown, anxiously.

'Hoods are being worn large this year. Madam,' said the assis­tant. 'It's the latest fashion.' He was about to add that Paddington seemed to have rather a large head anyway but he changed his mind. Bears were rather unpredictable. You never quite knew what they were thinking and this one in particular seemed to have a mind of his own.

'Do you like it, Paddington?' asked Mrs. Brown.

Paddington gave up counting bears in the mirror and turned round to look at the back Vicw. 'I think it's the nicest coat I've ever seen,' he said, after a moment's thought. Mrs. Brown and the assis­tant heaved a sigh of relief.

'Good,' said Mrs. Brown. "That's settled, then. Now there's just the question of a hat and a plastic mackintosh!'

She walked over to the hat counter, where Albert, who could still hardly take his admiring eyes off Paddington, had arranged a huge pile of hats. There were bowler hats, sun hats, trilby hats, berets, and even a very small top hat. Mrs. Brown eyed them doubtfully. 'It's largely a question of his ears. They stick out rather.'

'You could cut some holes for them,' said Albert.

The assistant froze him with a glance. 'Cut a hole in a Barkridge's hat!' he exclaimed. 'I've never heard of such a thing.'

Paddington turned and stared at him. 'I... er...' The assistant's voice trailed off. 'I'll go and fetch my scissors,' he said, in a queer voice.

'I don't think that will be necessary at all,' said Mrs. Brown, hurriedly. 'It's not as if he had to go to work in the city, so he doesn't want anything too smart. I think this woollen beret is very nice. The one with the pom-pom on top. The green will go well with his new coat and it'll stretch so that he can pull it down over his ears when it gets cold.'

Everyone agreed that Paddington looked very smart, and while Mrs. Brown looked for a plastic mackintosh, he trotted off to have another look at himself in the mirror. He found the beret was a little difficult to raise as his ears kept the bottom half firmly in place. But by pulling on the pom-pom he could make it stretch quite a long way, which was almost as good. It meant, too, that he could be po­lite without getting his ears cold.

The assistant wanted to wrap up the duffle coat for him but after a lot of fuss it was agreed that, even though it was a warm day, he should wear it. Paddington felt very proud of himself and he was anxious to see if other people noticed.

(Extract from "A Bear from Peru in England" by M. Bond)

Text 3

Harrods

ENTER A DIFFERENT WORLD

Welcome to Harrods — a different world for a million reasons. Harrods is the largest store in Europe with goods displayed in 60 windows and five and a half hectares of selling space. In one year over 14 million purchases are made in the 214 departments where you can buy anything from a pin to an elephant - if you can con­vince the manager of the Pet Department that you are a suitable elephant owner, that is! It is Harrods' policy to stock a wide and exciting range of merchandise in every department to give the cus­tomer a choice of goods which is unique in its variety and which no other store can match: Harrods stocks 100 different whiskies, 57 single malts, 450 different cheeses, 500 types of shirts and 9,000 ties to go with them, 8,000 dresses and 150 different pianos.

Harrods also offers a number of special services to its customers including a bank, an insurance department, a travel agency, Lon­don's last circulating library, a theatre ticket agency and a funeral service. £40 million worth of goods are exported annually from Harrods and the Export Department can deal with any customer purchase or order and will pack and send goods to any address in the world. Recently, for example, six bread rolls were sent to New York, a handkerchief to Los Angeles, a pound of sausages to a yacht anchored in the Mediterranean, a Persian carpet to Iran and a £5,000 chess set to Australia. Harrods has a world-wide reputation for first-class service. It has a staff of 4,000, rising to 6,000 at Christ­mas time.

Harrods sells 5 million different products, not all of which are actually kept in stock in the store itself. To handle this enormous range, a new computerized warehouse is being built. It will be the largest warehouse in Britain and the second largest in Europe and will deal with a wider range of goods than any other distribution centre in the world. Thanks to its modem technology a customer will be able to order any product (for example, a dining table or a dishwasher) from any assistant in the store. The assistant will be able to check its availability immediately on a computer screen, de­cide with the customer on a suitable delivery date and time and then pass the order directly to the warehouse through the computer. The time of delivery will be guaranteed to within one hour.

For many of London's visitors Harrods is an important stop on their sightseeing programme. Henry Charles Harrod's first shop was opened in 1849, but the building as it stands today was started in 1901 and it has become one of London's landmarks. It has many items of architectural interest: the plaster ceilings are original, as is the famous Meat Hall with its Victorian wall tiles, and the light fit­tings on the ground floor date back to the 1930s. A morning spent strolling round Harrods is guaranteed to give any shopper an appe­tite, and to feed its customers Harrods has six restaurants, ranging from the Circle self-service restaurants offering delicious food at reasonable prices to the famous Harrods Restaurant, where queues form every afternoon for the "Grand Buffet Tea", which fora fixed price allows you to eat as many cream cakes and gateaux as your greed will allow while waitresses serve you with India or China tea. If you feel like a drink you can choose between the pub atmosphere of the Green Man Tavern and the sophistication of the Cocktail Lounge. Harrods truly is a different world.

(Advertising Leaflet)

MEALS AND COOKING

Text

Correct Eating Habits

"Eat to live. Do not live to eat" is an old saying the truth of which a person realises only when he or she suffers from some seri­ous ailment like a heart condition and is advised by his or her physi­cian to cut down on his or her food. All schools of medicine lay em­phasis on correct eating habits for a healthy life.

Remember that after you have had a hearty meal, the pressure on your heart is increased. The amount of food should be such that the hunger is assuaged, but there is no feeling of fullness.

The second golden rule is to avoid fats and too much starch and carbohydrates derived from sugar. In communities where sugar in­take is low, there is very little incidence of heart disease.

The third rule is that stimulants like spices (chillies etc.) should be avoided. A bland diet with a little salt and a pinch of pepper may not taste as good as highly spiced food would, but it would be safer in the long run.

Kids with high cholesterol need an exotic diet. Mostly, they should stick to the guidelines that apply to all adults. Officially, the American Heart Association recommends that kids get no more than 30 percent of their calories from fat. That means (1) Limiting fast-food runs to once or twice a week. Otherwise, push the salads and leave out the jumbo fries, high-fat sauces, and everything-but-the-kitchen-sink burgers; (2) Sticking to lower-fat pizza toppings like mushrooms, ground beef, veggies, and plain cheese; (3) Choo­sing peanut butter, lean meat or skinless chicken or turkey for lunchtime; put limits on high-fat items like hot dogs, luncheon meats, and deep-fried anything; (4) Serving more complex carbohydrates like fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain products. Kids may not al­ways eat them, but at least they'll recognise them on sight.

Fortunately, lots of foods that kids like are also good for them. Most breakfast cereals are low in fat, for instance, as are pasta, lean meats, bread, tuna, skinless chicken, and fruit.

1. Discuss correct eating habits for grown-ups and children dwelling on:

1. the amount of food a person should eat;

2. the consumption of fats, starch and carbohydrates;

3. the use of stimulants;

4. going to fast-food places.

COLLEGE LIFE

Text 1

Classroom Notetaking

How would you feel if you were forced to spend hours and hours sitting in a hard-backed chair, eyes wide open, listening to the sound of someone else's voice? You wouldn't be allowed to sleep, eat, or smoke. You couldn't leave the room. To make matters worse, you'd be expected to remember every point the speaker made, and you'd be punished for foigetting. And, to top it off, you'd have to pay thousands of dollars for the experience.

Sounds like the torture scene from the latest spy thriller? Actu­ally, it's nothing of the kind. It's what all college students do who take a full load of courses.

Unfortunately, many students do regard these hours as tor­ture, and they do all sorts of things to deaden the pain. Some of them sit through class with glared eyes, minds wandering some­where. Others hide in the back of the room, sneaking glances at the newspaper or the book. Still others reduce the pain to zero: they simply don't come to class. These students do not realize that they are missing out on one of the most important aspects of their edu­cation.

One reason you should take lecture notes is that lectures add to what you read in textbooks. Lecturers combine the material and ap­proaches of many texts, saving you the trouble of researching an en­tire field. They keep up to date with their subjects and can include the latest studies or discoveries in their presentations. The best lec­turers combine knowledge with expert showmanship. Both infor­mative and entertaining speakers, they can make any subject leap wildly to life.

But isn't it good enough just to listen to these wonderful people without writing down what they say? Studies have shown that after two weeks you'll forget 80% of it. And you didn't come to the lec­ture room just to be entertained. You came to learn. The only way to keep the material in your head is to get it down in permanent form — in the form of lecture notes.

There are three steps to mastering the art of taking good lecture notes: the preparation, the note-taking process itself, and the post-lecture review.

Preparation.

First, mentally prepare yourself to take good notes. Examine your attitude. Remember, you're not going to the lecture room to be bored, tortured, or entertained; you're going there to learn. Also, examine the material the lecture will cover. Read the textbook chapter in advance.

Second, prepare yourself physically. Get a good night's sleep, and get to class — on time. Even better, get to class early, so you can get a good seat near the front of the room. You'll hear better there and be less tempted to let your mind wander. You'll also have time to open your notebook to a new page, find your pen, and write the date and topic of the lecture at the top. This way, you won't still be groping under your chair or flipping through pages when the lec­turer begins to speak.

Process.

Be prepared to do a good deal of writing in class. A good role of thumb for taking notes is, "when in doubt, write it down". After class, you will have time to go over your notes and make decisions about what is important enough to study and what is not. But in the midst of a lecture, you don't always have time to decide what is really important and what is quite secondary. You don't want to miss getting down a valuable idea.

Be sure to always write down what the lecturer puts on the board. If he or she takes the time to write something on the board, it is generally safe to assume that such material is important. And don't fall into the trap that some students make. They write down what is on the board but nothing more. They just sit and listen while the instructor explains all the connections between those words that have been chalked on the board. Everything may be perfectly clear to a student then, but several days later, chances are that all the connecting materials will be forgotten. If you write down the expla­nations in class, it will be much easier for you to make sense of the material and to study it later.

Here are some other hints for taking good classroom notes:

If you miss something, don't panic. Leave space for it in your notes and keep going. Later, get the missing information from a classmate or your textbook

Don't ignore the very beginning and end of class, often lecturers devote the first five minutes of their lectures to a review of material already covered or a preview of the next day's lecture. The last five minutes of a lecture can contain a clear summary of the class. Don't spend the first five minutes of class getting your materials out and the last five minutes putting them away. If you do, you'll probably miss something important.

Post-Lecture Review.

The real learning takes place after class. As soon as you have time, sit down and reread your notes. Fill in anything unclear or missing while it's still fresh in your mind. Then write a few key words and phrases that summarise the points of the lecture.

Cover your notes, and, using only these key words, try to recon­struct as much of the lecture as you can. This review will cement the major points in your memory and will save significant time when you study for the exam.

To sum all this up, be prepared to go into class and be not just an active listener but an active notetaker as well. Being in class and taking good notes while you are there are the most valuable steps you can take to succeed in college.

Answer the questions.

1. What do you do during a classroom lecture?

2. Do you sit and stare at the lecturer, wondering if he or she will ever stop?

3. Do you try to write everything which is said, but can't keep up?

4. Why take lecture notes? Isn't it good enough just to listen to the lecturer without writing down what he or she says?

5. What are the three steps to mastering the art of taking good lecture notes? Discuss in class each step.

6. Could you think of some more hints for taking good class­room notes?

7. Have you got your own tips on how to make the best use of class time?

Text 2

Examination

Then, for months, there was nothing in life save work: a careful planning out of day and night in order that sleeping and eating and exercise might encroach as little as possible on the working hours.

From early morning till late at night the desperate meek untidy heads of girls were bowed over tables in the library, their faces when they lifted them were feverish and blurred with work.

Pages rustled; pencils whispered; squeaking shoes tiptoed in and out. Somebody tapped out a dreary tune on her teeth; somebody had a running cold; somebody giggled beneath her breath; some­body sighed and sighed.

Examination week.

This week there was nothing in your mind save the machine which obeyed you smoothly, turning but dates and biographies, contrasting, discussing, theorizing.

Judith walked in a dream among the pale examination faces that flowed to their doom. Already at nine o'clock the heat struck up from the streets, rolled downwards from the roofs. By midday it would by extremely unpleasant in Cambridge.

This was the great examination hall. Girls were filing in, each carrying a glass of water, and searching in a sort of panic for her place. Here was a white ticket labelled Earle, J. So Judith Earte really was expected, an integral part of this grotesque organized un­reality. No hope now.

The bench was hard.

All over the room girls' heads turned, nodding and winking at friends, whispering, giggling and grimacing with desperate bravery. One simulated suicide by leaning her bosom on her fountain pen.

Then panic descended suddenly upon Judith. Her head was like a floating bubble; there was nothing in it at all. She caught at threads of knowledge and they broke, withered and dissolved like cobwebs in the hand. She struggled to throw off a crowding confu­sion of half remembered words.

A headful of useless scraps rattling about in emptiness — The clock struck nine.

'You can begin now', said a thin voice from the dais.

There was an enormous sigh, a rustling of paper, then silence.

The questions had, nearly all, at first glance a familiar reassuring look. It was all right. Panic vanished, the mind assembled its ener­gies coolly, precisely, the pen flew.

After an hour the first pause to cool her forehead with a stick of frozen Eau de Cologne and to sip some water.

Girls were wriggling and biting their pens. Somewhere the toothtapper was playing her dreary tune.

Another hour fled. The trouble was having too much to say, rather than too little. The room was rigid, dark with concentration now.

Three hours. It was over. You could not remember what you had written; but you had never felt more firm and sure of mind. Three hours nearer to life.

A troop of undergraduates passed on the way from their exami­nation room. They looked amused and exhilarated. They stuffed their papers into their pockets, lit pipes, straightened their shoulders and went cheerfully to lunch.

The girls crept out in twos and threes, earnestly talking, com­paring the white slips they carried.

'Did you do this one?'

'What did you put for that?'

'Oh, I say! Will they take off marks do you think?'

'It was a beast.'

'Oh, it might have been worse.'

Girls really should be trained to be less obviously female stu­dents. It only needed a little discipline.

'Of course I see now I shan't pass — It seems a pity, after all that work — My memory is practically gone —'

Back to the vault now for another three hours.

That day passed smoothly; and the next.

Suddenly there were no answers to be written from nine till twelve, from two till five — no lectures, no coachings, no notes, no fixed working hours. Instead, a great idleness under whose burden you felt lost and oppressed. The academic years were gone for ever.

(Extract from "Dusty Answer" by R. Lehman)

CHARACTER AND APPEARANCE

Text

Improving Appearance

Most women all over the world are interested in improving their appearance. Here are some passages for those who care and wish to make the best of themselves — of their features, their skin and theirfigure.

What you have got to realise, however, is that true beauty is not just a matter of having a pretty face. It is much more.

Real beauty is the self-awareness that makes you. It is having sparkle, poise, serenity and confidence. It is having an awareness that makes everyone you come in contact with feel that you are a very special and attractive person. It is radiance that comes from good health.

Beauty is being able to make the best of yourself.

Putting it another way — there really are no plain people in this world. Undoubtedly some may have better features than others, but then, very very few of us can claim to come up to the current stan­dards of plastic beauty.

Each one of us can, or is, at least, capable of improving oneself, and exuding the radiant glow of an attractive and confident person.

A careless attitude about yourself and an abuse of the body are quickly followed by fading and weakness, whereas careful nurturing will prolong the years of youthfulness, beauty and comfort.

Give proper care to your body, and you can be vitally alive as well as stay attractive all your life.

Remember, nothing you do is going to perform any magical change overnight. Any of the treatments you follow for body care has to be regularly repeated in order to give it a fair chance to work.

As health and beauty go hand in hand, check on the list of ques­tions listed below to see if you qualify to be a member of the healthy group.

1. Do you have a good posture? There should be no sagging in the middle or drooping in the shoulders.;

2. Are your eyes clear?

3. Do you have a happy facial expression that is alive and lacks strain?

4.             Are you fussy about your food? Do you eat well?

5.             Do you sleep well?

6.             Is the colour of your skin healthy?

7.             Are your teeth in good condition?

8.             Do you take a lively interest in living?

9.             Finally — do you give the general impression of good health    and vigour?

The answers to all the questions except the first part of question 4 should be an emphatic YES. However, if out of the ten "yes" an­swers you score right with seven to eight questions, you should be in fairly good health.

You need a full-length mirror so that you can look at yourself critically from the head to toe, keep a check on your figure and examine your posture.

Healthy eyes have a sparkle about them that is quite irresistible. Like your skin, fair and shining, clear eyes indicate good health. If you suffer ill-health or feel emotionally or physically low, your eyes become dull and strained-looking.

Sleep is very vital for clear healthy eyes. You need at an average at least eight hours of sleep in a day, without it, your eyes become dull, puffy and red. Dark circles also appear.

CHOOSING A HAIR STYLE.

The style that you choose for your hair should depend on the type of hair you have and on the shape of your face.

However fashions may fluctuate, there are certain rules that do not change. Keep these in mind before you choose the style.

Keep fine hair short and fluffy.

Hair that is medium or coarse takes most styles well.

Heavy or thick hair must not be kept very long, as it does not hang well.

Study the shape of the face by severely drawing back all your hair. Remember, the right hair style can make you look more at­tractive by drawing attention away from your physical flaws towards your more attractive features.

LONG FACE

Keep your hair fairly short — long hair tends to "pull down" your whole appearance. Go in for width at the temple — it helps to "broaden" your face. Fringes look good as they help to "shorten" the face.

HEART-SHAPED FACE

Softness at the temples and fullness just below ear level suits a heart-shaped face best. Avoid a centre parting because it tends to emphasise your pointed chin.

SQUARE FACE

Fringes and curls flicked forward help to soften "corners". Cut your hair short at the temples. Avoid a severe hair style.

ROUND FACE

The ideal hair length is just below chin level. Choose a straightish style with a centre parting. Avoid fringes, curls or waves.

OVAL FACE

An oval face can take most hair styles well. However, do keep your age and personality in mind.

PEAR-SHAPED FACE

Give width to temples and keep hair off the forehead. Short hair looks best.

MAKING-UP

Quite possibly you have an imperfect skin or imperfect features. But do not despair. Make-up applied well can do wonders for your appearance.

Perfect skin and perfect features are exceedingly rare. Most models in the glamorous beauty and fashion magazines have in fact quite unremarkable faces. It is make-up that makes them look so eye-catching and glamorous.

If, however, you are one of the rare and lucky ones to have a perfect skin and perfect features, remember that good make-up can make you absolutely beautiful.

Everyday make-up should look completely natural. Its primary object should be to correct colour faults of the complexion, disguise imperfections and accentuate good features.

When your skin is healthy and absolutely clean, make-up can, and should be kept light. Radiance, rather than a pink and white prettiness, should be your aim.

Use less make-up all the time for a fresher and younger look.

(Extract from "The Piper Book of Beauty" by Chodev)

I.              Read the passage and say what you think of it.

II.            Choose advice which suit your type of face adding advice of your own if necessary.

WEATHER

Text I

British Weather

"Other countries have a climate; in England we have weather." This statement, often made by Englishmen to describe the special meteorological conditions of their country, is both typical of the English and true. In no country other than England can one experi­ence four seasons in the course of a single day! Day may break as a mild spring morning; an hour or so later black clouds may have ap­peared from nowhere and the rain may be pouring down. At midday conditions may be really wintry with the temperature down by about fifteen degrees. And then, in the late afternoon, the sky will clear, the sun will begin to shine and for an hour or two before dark­ness falls, it will be summer.

The problem is that we never can be sure which of the different types of weather we will find. Not only do we get several different sorts of weather in one day, but we may very well get a spell of win­ter in summer and vice versa. The foreigner may laugh when he sees the Englishman setting forth on a brilliantly sunny morning wearing a raincoat and carrying an umbrella, but he may well regret his laughter later in the day! And, of course, the weather's variety pro­vides a constant topic of conversation, and you must be good at dis­cussing the weather.

(Extract from "Modern English I for Teacher Students" by G. Graustein)

Text II

British Climate

Britain has a generally mild and temperate climate. It lies in middle latitudes to the north-west west of the great continen­tal land mass of Eurasia, but the prevailing winds are south­ westerly. The climate is subject to frequent changes but to few ex­tremes of temperature. Although it is largely determined by that of the eastern Atlantic, occasionally during the winter months easterly winds may bring a cold, dry, continental weather which, once es­tablished, may persist for many days or even weeks.

In Britain, south-westerly winds are the most frequent, and those from an easterly quarter the least. Winds are generally stronger in the north than in the south of the British Isles, stronger on the coasts than inland, and stronger in the west than in the east. The strongest winds usually occur in the winter. The stormiest re­gion of the British Isles is along the north-west coast, with over 30 gales a year; south-east England and the east Midlands are the least stormy.

Near sea level the mean annual temperature ranges from 8 °C (47 °F) in the Hebrides to 11 °C (52 °F) in the extreme south-west of England. During a normal summer, the temperature occasionally rises above 27 °C (80 °F) in the south, but temperatures of 32 °C (90 °F) and above are infrequent. Extreme minimum tempera­tures depend to a large extent on local conditions, but -7 °C (20 °F) may occur on a still, clear winter's night, -12 °C (10 °F) is rare, and -18 °C (0 °F) or below has been recorded only during exceptionally severe winter periods.

The British Isles as a whole have an annual rainfall of over 40 inches, while England alone has about 34 inches. Rain is fairiy well distributed throughout the year, but, on the average, March to June are the driest months and October to January the wettest. A period of as long as three weeks without rain is exceptional, and usually confined to limited areas. In successive years, however, remarkably contrasting weather conditions are sometimes experienced.

The distribution of sunshine over the British Isles shows a gen­eral decrease from south to north, a decrease from the coast inland, and a decrease with altitude. During May, June and July — the months of longest daylight — the mean daily duration of sunshine varies from five and a half hours in western Scotland to seven and a half hours in the extreme south-east of England; during the months of shortest daylight — November, December and January — sun­shine is at a minimum, with an average of half an hour a day in some parts of the Highlands in Scotland and two hours a day on the south coast of England.

In fine, still weather there is occasionally haze in summer and mist and fog in winter. Until about 1956 dense fogs containing smog and other pollution from the burning of coal used to occur from time to time in London and other centers of population. Since then, as a result of changes in fuel usage and the operation of clean air legislation, fogs have become less severe.

(Extract from "Britain. An Official Handbook")

I. Read and translate the text.

II. Work in pairs. Let one of the students read out some sentences from the text and the other student interrupt him, asking him/her to clarify things, to check the details.

► Pattern

a) — Britain has a generally mild and temperate climate. It lies...

— What do you mean "temperate "?

— I mean it is free from the extremes of heat and cold.

— Oh, I understand.

b) — The climate is subject to frequent changes but to few extremes of temperature.

— Sony, I don't quite see what you mean by "subject to frequent changes"?

— I mean that it has a tendency to change frequently.

— I think I understand.

c) — In fine still weather there is occasionally a haze in summer.

— What is a haze?

— It is a thin mist.

— I see.

Text III

The Weather

This is the most important topic in the land. Do not be misled by memories of your youth when, on the Continent, wanting to de­scribe someone as exceptionally dull, you remarked: 'He is the type who would discuss the weather with you.' In England this is an ever-interesting, even thrilling topic, and you must be good at dis­cussing the weather.

EXAMPLES FOR CONVERSATION

For Good Weather

'Lovely day, isn't it?'

'Isn't it beautiful?'

'The sun...'

'Isn't it goigeous?'

'Wonderful, isn't it?'

'It's so nice and hot...'

'Personally, I think it's so nice when it's hot — isn't it?'

'I adore it — don't you?'

For Bad Weather

'Nasty day, isn't it?'

'Isn't it dreadful?'

'The rain... I hate rain...'

'I don't like it at all. Do you?'

'Fancy such a day in July. Rain in the morning, then a bit of sunshine, and then rain, rain, rain, all day long.'

'I remember exactly the same July day in 1936.' .

'Yes, I remember too.'

'Or was it in 1928?'

'Yes, it was.'

'Or in 1939?'

'Yes, that's right.'

Now observe the last few sentences of this conversation. A very important rule emerges from it. You must never contradict anybody when discussing the weather. Should it hail or snow, should hurricanes uproot the trees from the sides of the road, and should some­one remark to you: 'Nice day, isn't it?' — answer without hesita­tion: 'Isn't it lovely?'

Learn the above conversations by heart. If you, are a bit slow in picking things up, learn at least one conversation, it would do won­derfully for any occasion.

If you do not say anything else for the rest of your life, just re­peat this conversation, you will still have a fair chance of passing as a remarkably witty man of sharp intellect, keen observation and ex­tremely pleasant manners.

English society is a class society, strictly organized almost on corporative lines. If you doubt this, listen to the weather forecasts. There is always a different weather forecast for farmers. You often hear statements like this on the radio:

'Tomorrow it will be cold, cloudy and foggy; long periods of rain will be interrupted by short periods of showers.'

And then:

'Weather forecast for farmers. It will be fair and warm, many hours of sunshine.'

You must not forget that the farmers do grand work of national importance and deserve better weather.

It happened on innumerable occasions that nice, warm weather had been forecast and rain and snow fell all day long, or vice versa. Some people jumped rashly to the conclusion that something must be wrong with the weather forecasts. They are mistaken and should be more careftil with their allegations.

I have read an article in one of the Sunday papers and now I can tell you what the situation really is. All troubles are caused by anti­cyclones. (I don't quite know what anticyclones are, but this is not important; I hate cyclones and am very anti-cyclone myself.) The two naughtiest anti-cyclones are the Azores and the Polar anti­cyclones.

The British meteorologists forecast the right weather — as it really should be — and then these impertinent little anti-cyclones interfere and mess up everything.

That again proves that if the British kept to themselves and did not mix with foreign things like Polar and Azores anti-cyclones they would be much better off.

(Story by G.Mikes)

I. Discussion points.

1. What topics besides the weather are most important in Russia?

2. What other conversational formulas would you recommend to leam by heart in order to look a person of sharp intel­lect?

3. What other groups of population besides fanners deserve better weather?

4. What else interferes with the right forecasting except anti­cyclones?

5. What would you prescribe to the Russians to be much bet­ter off?

II. Choose the most unexpected answer and think of an unexpected prize for it.

Poem

January Brings the Snow

January brings the snow,

Makes our feet and fingers glow.

February brings the rain,

Thaws the frozen lake again.

March brings breeze loud and shrill,

Stirs the dancing daffodil.

April brings the primrose sweet,

Scatters daisies at our feet.

May brings flocks of pretty lambs,

Skipping by their fleecy dams.

June brings tulips, lilies, roses,

Fills the children's hands with posies.

Hot July brings cooling showers,

Apricots and gilly flowers.

August brings the sheaves of corn

Then the harvest home is borne.

Warm September brings the fruit,

Sportsmen then begin to shoot.

Fresh October brings the pheasant,

Then to gather nuts is pleasant.

Dull November brings the blast,

Then the leaves are whirling fast.

Chill December brings the sleet,

Blazing fire and Christmas treat.

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

Family Life

aspirant [@'spaI@r@nt]

претендент

aunt

тётя

baby-sitter

няня

bachelor

холостяк

be head over ears in love

влюбиться по уши

be lost in admiration of smb.

заглядываться на кого-либо

be related

быть родственниками

be of full age

быть совершеннолетним

best man

шафер

bless the marriage

благословить брак

bread-winner

кормилец

bride

невеста

bridesmaid

подружка невесты

brother

брат

care about smb.

заботиться о ком-либо

childless

бездетный

civil marriage

гражданский брак

cleanliness ['klenlInIs]

опрятность

cot

детская кроватка

cousin

двоюродный брат или сестра

court [kþt] smb.

ухаживать за кем-либо

cross marriage

перекрёстный брак

date

назначать свидание

diamond ['daI@m@nd] anniversary

бриллиантовая свадьба

divorce [dI'vþs]

разводиться

divorcee [dI,vþ'si:]

разведенный/ая муж/жена

double date

свидание, на которое приходят две пары

 

do well at school

хорошо учиться в школе

dowry ['daU@rI]

приданое

earn money

зарабатывать деньги

earn one's living

зарабатывать на жизнь

efficient [I'fISnt] housewife

хорошая хозяйка

engagement [In'geI³m@nt]

помолвка

expect a baby

ждать ребёнка

faithfulness

верность

fall in love

влюбиться

family album

семейный альбом

fiance [fI'¸nser]

жених

fiancee [fI'¸nseI]

невеста

flirt

флиртовать

foster mother

1) кормилица

2) приёмная мать

fraternal [fr@'tÆ:nl]

братский

generation gap

разница между поколениями, проблема отцов и детей

get/have a crush on smb.

потерять голову из-за кого-либо

get married

вступить в брак, пожениться

get on well together

хорошо ладить с кем-либо

give flowers/presents

дарить цветы, подарки

go Dutch

каждому платить за себя (в ресторане, баре и пр.)

go steady with smb.

постоянно встречаться с кем-либо

go out

бывать в обществе, ходить развлекаться

golden anniversary

золотая свадьба

grandparent

бабушка или дедушка

great grandparent

прабабушка или прадедушка

groom

жених

grumble at smb.

ворчать на кого-либо

guardian ['g¸dI@n]

опекун

harem ['he@r@m]

гарем

head of the house

глава семьи

honeymoon

медовый месяц

 

host(ess)

хозяин/хозяйка (по отношению к гостям)

household

хозяйство

housewife

домохозяйка

husband

муж

in-laws (/»., pi.)

родственники со стороны мужа или жены

juggle a family and a career

заниматься семьёй и работой одновременно

keep house

вести хозяйство

keep the family

содержать семью

kith and kin

родня, родные и близкие

let smb. down

подводить, покидать в беде

live apart

жить раздельно

live on one's parents

быть на содержании родителей

love marriage

брак по любви

maid of honour

свидетельница (на свадьбе), по­дружка невесты

make a pass at smb.

делать попытку познакомиться, пытаться ухаживать

make acquaintance of smb.

познакомиться с кем-либо

marital status [m@'raItl 'steIt@s]

семейное положение

marriage certificate [s@'tIfIk@t]

свидетельство о браке

marriage advertisement

брачное объявление

marriage of convenience [k@n'vÖnI@ns]

брак по расчёту

married

женатый, замужняя

marry for love/money

жениться по любви/расчёту

marry low

вступить в неравный брак

maternal [m@'tÆ:nl]

материнский

maternity home

родильный дом

match

партия (о браке)

misalliance ["mIs@'laI@ns]

неравный брак, мезальянс

monogamy [m@'nÁg@mI]

моногамия, единобрачие

nappy

пеленка

new-born

новорожденный

newly-wed

молодожён

nephew ['nevju:]

племянник

 

niece

племянница

offspring

отпрыск

parent

родитель

parental [p@'rentl]

родительский

pass the age

выйти из возраста

paternal

отцовский

pick up

подцепить кого-либо

polygamy [p@'lIg@mI]

полигамия, многобрачие

pram

коляска

propose

делать предложение

proposal

предложение

raise children

растить детей

relative

родственник

resemble smb.

быть похожим на кого-либо

rush into marriage

скоропалительно жениться

single

неженатый/незамужняя

sibling ['sIblIÎ]

родной брат или сестра

silver anniversary

серебряная свадьба

singles' bar

бар для одиноких

sister

сестра

solvent ['sÁlv@nt]

без материальных проблем (стиль газетных объявлений)

spouse [spaUz]

супруг

spinster

незамужняя женщина

stepmother

мачеха, неродная мать

stepfather

отчим, неродной отец

take after smb.

быть похожим на кого-либо

take children to-

водить детей в ...

twin

близнец

triplet ['trIplIt]

близнец из тройни

uncle

ДЯДЯ

wallflower

дама, оставшаяся без кавалера (на балу)

wedding

свадьба

wedlock

супружество (книжн.)

widow(er)

вдова/вдовец

wife

жена

 

Conversational Formulas:

 

 

He's a good family man.

Он — хороший семьянин.

He takes after his parents.

Он похож на родителей.

How long have you been married?

Как давно вы женаты?

She is an efficient housewife.

Она хорошая хозяйка.

She comes from a good family.

Она из хорошей семьи.

They are a nice family.

У них прекрасная семья.

Cheaper by the dozen.

(У них) семеро по лавкам.

They had their wedding

Они сыграли свадьбу

in the autumn/winter.

осенью/зимой.

 

Dwelling

adjacent [@'³@]

примыкающий

adorn

украшать

alcove [lk@v]

альков, ниша

appliance [@@]

приспособление, устройство, прибор

armchair

кресло

apartment

квартира

balcony

балкон

bathroom

ванная комната

basement [@nt]

подвал, фундамент

be crammed up with furniture

быть заставленным мебелью

be cramped for space

мало места

be short of light

мало света

bedroom

спальня

bedside table

тумбочка

bedspread

покрывало

blind []

штора

block of flats

многоквартирный дом

block out the light

загораживать свет

bookcase

книжный шкаф

building

здание

building society

строительное общество

 

bungalow [böÎ@l@]

бунгало

bunk bed

двухъярусная кровать

camp bed

раскладушка

carpet

ковёр

ceiling ['si:l@Î]

потолок

cellar [s@l@]

подвал, погреб

central heating

центральное отопление

chair

стул

chandelier ["@]

люстра

chest of drawers ['est @v'drþz]

комод

china

фарфор

closet ['klÁzIt]

стенной шкаф, чулан

coat rack

вешалка

coffee table

журнальный столик

communal ['kÁmjUnl] flat

коммунальная квартира

convenience [k@n'vi:nj@ns]

удобство

cosy

уютный

cooker

плита

cooker hood

вытяжка

corridor

коридор

cottage

коттедж, домик

country-house

загородный дом

cover with dust sheets

покрыть чехлами (о мебели)

cover

покрывало

crammed up with things

забитый вещами

crockery

фарфоровая и фаянсовая посуда

crystal ['krIstl]

хрусталь

cupboard ['köb@d]

шкаф, сервант

curtain

занавеска

curtain rail

карниз

cushion ['kUS@n]

диванная подушка

cutlery

ножевые изделия, металлические столовые приборы

decorate

оформлять, украшать

detached house

отдельный дом

dining room

столовая

 

dinner set

столовый сервиз

dish-drainer

сушилка для посуды

do the decorating

делать косметический ремонт

door-handle

дверная ручка

double bed

двуспальная кровать

drawing room

гостиная

dressing-table

туалетный столик

drive in a nail

забить гвоздь

dustbin

мусорное ведро

dwelling

жилище

entrance

вход

fail to operate

сломаться

feel at home

чувствовать себя как дома

fence

забор

fitted carpet

палас, ковровое покрытие

fireplace

камин

flight of stairs

лестничный пролёт

floor (parquet, polished)

пол (паркетный, натёртый)

floor polisher

полотёр

flowered

цветастый

fluorescent [flU@'resnt] lamp

лампа дневного света

flush-toilet

унитаз

four-poster ['fþ'p@Ust@] bed

кровать с альковом

freezer

морозильная камера

fridge

холодильник

front of the house

фасад дома

focus of the room

центральное место в комнате

furnish

меблировать

furniture

мебель

garage ['g{r¸Z]

гараж

get rickety

расшататься (о мебели)

hall

прихожая

hangings

портьеры

hearth [h¸T]

очаг

hedge

изгородь

home

дом, домашний очаг

houseplant

комнатное растение

 

housewarming party

новоселье

interior ['tI@rI@]

интерьер

keyhole

замочная скважина г

kitchen

кухня

know where things go

знать, где что лежит

lamp

лампа

lavatory ['l{v@trI]

туалет

let a flat

сдавать квартиру

lift

лифт

lights fuse/go out

лампочки перегорают

linoleum [lI'n@Ulj@m]

линолеум

living room

гостиная

look out onto ...

выходить на ... (об окнах)

lounge [laUn³]

гостиная

lustre ['löst@]

люстра

mansion ['m{nS@n]

особняк, большой дом

mat

коврик, циновка

mixer tap

смеситель, кран

modem accomodations

современные удобства

mortgage ['mþgI³]

ссуда, заём (при покупке дома)

move in/to

въезжать, переезжать

move the furniture around

передвигать мебель

neighbour

сосед

nursery

детская комната

one/two/...-room flat

одно/двух/... комнатная квартира

one/two/...-storeyed house

одно/двух/...этажный дом

oven [övn]

духовка

owner

владелец, собственник

palace

дворец

papered

оклеенный обоями

parquet ['p¸keI]

паркет

patterned

с рисунком

pillow

подушка

pillow-case

наволочка

pipes get clogged

трубы засоряются

plain

однотонный (о ткани)

portable

переносной

 

put things right

починить, исправить

quilt [kwIlt]

стёганое одеяло

radiator ['reIdIeIt@]

батарея центрального отопления

real estate agency [I@I³@]

агентство недвижимости

refrigerator [rI³@@]

холодильник

refuse-chute [ü"Sü]

мусоропровод

renovate [U]

подновлять, ремонтировать, реконструировать

repair

ремонт

room

комната

rent a flat

снимать квартиру

rug

пушистый коврик

running water

водопровод

self-contained flat

отдельная квартира

semi-detached house [']

один из двух домов под общей крышей

 

 

share a room with smb.

проживать в одной комнате с кем-либо

sheet

простыня

shift

передвигать

show the dirt

пачкаться

single bed

односпальная кровать

sink

раковина (на кухне)

sky-scraper [@]

небоскрёб

sofa

диван

sewing-machine [@Î@"Ö]

швейная машина

space

место, пространство

spacious [@]

просторный

spyhole

дверной глазок

stack chairs

составлять стулья

standard lamp

торшер

statuette []

статуэтка

stereo [@rI@] system

стереосистема

stool

табурет

storeroom

кладовая

stove

плита, печь

tap

кран

 

tea set

чайный сервиз

three quarter ['TÖþ@] bed

полутораспальная кровать

TV set .

телевизор

throw open

распахнуть

threshold [()@U]

порог

tiled

покрытый кафельной плиткой

toilet

туалет

tubular ['tju:bjUl@] steel chair

стул с алюминиевыми ножками

unlock the door

отпереть дверь

upholstered furniture

мягкая мебель

upholstery [öp'h@Ulst@rI]

обивка

utensil [ju:'tensl]

посуда, утварь

vacuum cleaner ['v{kjU@m,kli:n@]

пылесос

vegetable cutter

овощерезка

waffle-maker

вафельница

wall lamp

бра

wall-paper ['wþl,peIp@]

обои

wall units

стенка

wardrobe

шкаф

washing machine

стиральная машина

wash-basin ['wÁS"beIsn]

(умывальный) таз, умывальная раковина

washing wall-paper

моющиеся обои

whitewash

n. — побелка

v. — белить, делать

 

побелку

window-sill

подоконник

yard [j¸d]

двор

Conversational Formulas:

 

Do you live in a house or а block of flats?

У вас свой дом или квартира?

I've just had my flat repaired.

Я только что отремонтировал(а) квартиру.

Their flat is well furnished.

У них квартира хорошо обставлена.

We moved to another flat.

1) Мы переехали на новую квартиру.

2) Мы поменяли квартиру

I live at15 Pushkin Street.

Я живу в доме 15 по улице Пушкина.

I live on the fourth floor.

Я живу на пятом этаже.

 

Daily Routine

annoy [@'nOI] smb.

надоедать, досаждать

apply make-up/cosmetics [Á]

накладывать косметику

arrange a party

организовать вечеринку

arrive at work late/on time

приезжать на работу с опозданием/вовремя

attend classes of aerobics[@@]

посещать занятия аэробикой

awake smb.

будить

awake out of a dream

пробуждаться ото сна

awaken

просыпаться, пробуждаться

be a TV addict []

не отрываться от телевизора

be an early riser

рано вставать

be awake

бодрствовать, не спать

be busy

быть занятым

be/feel sleepy (refreshed, tired)

хотеть спать, быть сонным (чувствовать себя бодрым/ чувствовать себя усталым)

be fixed at... o'clock

быть назначенным на ... часов

be frustrating [ö]

вызывать разочарование

be fussy about smth.

быть привередливым в чём-либо

be in/out

быть дома/не быть дома

be sporty

заниматься спортом

bedtime

время ложиться спать

brush up on smth.

освежать в памяти,

 

 

восстанавливать знания

call on smb.

зайти к кому-либо, нанести короткий визит

 

catch a bus

садиться на автобус

catch up on smth.

нагнать, наверстать

clean one's teeth

чистить зубы

collect smb. (from school)

забирать кого-либо (из школы)

comb [@] one's hair

расчёсывать волосы

daily routine [üÖ]

распорядок дня

do morning exercises

делать зарядку

do one's hair

причесываться

do the cleaning

делать уборку

do the cooking

готовить

do the homework

делать уроки

do the housework

заниматься домашним хозяйством

do the shopping

делать покупки

get dressed

одеваться

get down to work

приниматься за работу

(not to) get enough sleep

(не) высыпаться

get into trouble

попасть в беду, иметь неприятности

get out of bed

вставать

get up on time/late/early

вставать вовремя/поздно/рано

go for a mn

делать пробежку

go out

выходить в свет, бывать в обществе

go shopping

ходить в магазин

go to a disco [@]

ходить на дискотеку

go to keep-fit classes

ходить на спортивные занятия

have a good night's rest

хорошо выспаться

have a hasty [] bite

наскоро перекусить

have/take a shower

принимать душ

have a snack

перекусить

have a warm-up [þmöp]

делать зарядку, разминаться

have the last say in smth.

последнее слово остаётся за кем-либо

keep fit

быть в форме (вести здоровый образ жизни)

keep late hours

сидеть допоздна

keep smb. busy

заниматься чем-либо

 

leisure ['@Z@] time

досуг

lie awake all night

пролежать всю ночь, не смыкая глаз

lie in bed

валяться в постели

lunchtime

время ланча

make a timetable

составлять расписание

make the bed

застилать/стелить постель

organize one's time

планировать время

plan one's week

распланировать неделю

put on make up

накладывать косметику, краситься

practise swimming/running

заниматься плаванием/ бегом

put in a good mood

привести кого-либо в хорошее расположение духа

receive guests

принимать гостей

relax []

отдыхать

set off to work

отправляться на работу

sit up late

засиживаться до поздней ночи

sleep like a log

спать мёртвым сном

stay in

не выходить, оставаться дома

stay in bed

лежать/оставаться в постели

stay out of trouble

не влезать в неприятности

strip off to ...

раздеться до ...

take a nap

вздремнуть, подремать

take a rest

отдыхать, спать

take smb. out

пригласить, повести кого-либо куда-нибудь

treat

1) удовольствие, наслаждение

2) угощение

use to the full

пользоваться чем-либо в полной мере

vary ['@] (from day to day)

менять, разнообразить(день ото дня)

wake up

просыпаться

work out

1) разрабатывать

 

 

2) заниматься физическими упражнениями

 

Conversational Formulas:

Не who does not work neither shall he eat. I could get no rest.

I haven't slept a wink.

Let's call it a day.

Let's make a rest from work.

He has a very tight schedule.

 

Кто не работает, тот не ест.

У меня не было ни минуты покоя.

Я глаз не сомкнул(а).

На сегодня всё.

Давайте сделаем передышку.

Его день расписан по минутам.

 

Domestic Chores

abrasive [@] powder

чистящий порошок

air

проветривать (помещение)

apron [@]

передник

ash

зола

attachment

насадка (для миксера и т. п.)

basin []

таз, миска

be not much of a housewife

быть не очень хорошей хозяйкой

beat

выбивать, выколачивать (мягкую мебель, ковры и т. п.)

bleach [Ö]

отбеливать

block

блокировать, засорять

blue

n. — синька

v. — подсинивать

bottle-brush

щётка, ёрш для мытья бутылок

broom

метла, веник

brush (stiff -, clothes ~)

щётка (жёсткая ~, платяная ~)

chaos [@]

хаос, беспорядок

cinder [@]

1) пепел, зола

2) угольки

clean

1) чистить, очищать

2) убирать (комнату)

dry-cleaner's ["Ö@]

химчистка

 

do the cleaning

делать уборку

cleanser [@]

жидкое чистящее средство

clear the table

убирать со стола

clear up a mess clothes line

прибирать, убирать верёвка бельевая

clothes-peg

зажим, прищепка

cook-general

прислуга, выполняющая обязанности кухарки и горничной

Daily

приходящая работница, подёнщица

damage things

портить вещи

damp cloth darks (и., pi.)

влажная тряпка тёмное белье (собир. сущ.)

detergent [Æ:³@]

моющее средство

dish-cloth

кухонное, посудное полотенце

dish-washer

посудомоечная машина

domestic chores [@þ

домашние обязанности

domestic work

работа по дому

do a big wash

устраивать/делать большую стирку

do one's laundry [þ] do smth. about the house

стирать делать что-либо по дому

do the dishes

мыть посуду

do the ironing do the mending

гладить чинить белье

do the repairs do the room

делать ремонт делать уборку комнаты

do the work of a flat

делать работу по дому

drip drudgery [ö³@]

капать тяжёлая, неприятная работа

dry (up) plates, dishes

вытирать посуду

dust (the furniture, a room)

вытирать пыль (с мебели/в комнате)

dustbin

мусорное ведро

duster

тряпка (для пыли)

dustpan electrical appliances

совок электроприборы

 

filthy ['f]

грязный

floor-cloth

половая тряпка

floor-polisher

полотёр

food processor

кухонный комбайн

get out of order

выйти из строя, сломаться,

get smth. adjusted [@³ö]

налаживать что-либо, чинить

get the dirt into a dustpan

смести мусор в совок

glaze the window

вставить стекло

go and empty the dustbin

выносить ведро

go wrong

портиться (о механизмах)

grimy []

грязный, запачканный сажей, углём

grubby

грязный, чумазый, неопрятный

handy

ловкий, искусный

hang (out) one's washing

вешать, развешивать бельё

hang stockings up by the heels

вешать чулки пятками вверх

help smb. in/about the home(house)

помогать кому-либо по дому

hideous [@] mess

страшный беспорядок

household refuse [ü]

отходы

househusband

муж, выполняющий домашнюю работу

housekeeping

домашнее хозяйство

housework

работа по дому

iron [@]

n. — утюг

v. — гладить

ironing board

гладильная доска

keep house

вести домашнее хозяйство

knit []

вязать

labour-saving devices

приборы, облегчающие домашний труд

laundry

прачечная

laundry soap

хозяйственное мыло

leave smth. till tomorrow

откладывать что-либо до завтра

leave things around

разбрасывать вещи

lights (n., pi.)

светлое бельё (собир. сущ.)

(bed) linen []

(постельное) бельё

 

litter

n. — мусор, сор

v. — сорить, разбрасывать

Liver-in/live-in help

домработница, живущая в доме

load (the dirty dishes) into ...

загружать (грязную посуду) в ...

look spick and span

выглядеть безукоризненно чистым

make a mark

посадить пятно

mark (finger ~)

пятно (пятно от пальца)

mark the linen/do the marking

метить бельё

mend

штопать, чинить, ремонтировать

mess in/up

производить беспорядок

messy job

грязная работа

mop

швабра

old hand at smth.

опытный в чём-либо

peel off

сходить, лупиться (о краске)

polish the furniture/the floor

полировать мебель/натирать пол мастикой

put smth. in its place

класть, ставить что-либо на место

put up the curtains

вешать занавески

remove (a stain/a spot)

удалять, выводить (пятно)

rinse []

полоскать

roll [@] up one's sleeves

засучить рукава

mb at smth. with a cloth

тереть что-либо тряпкой

rob over

протирать (мебель)

ruin one's hands

портить руки (домашней работой)

run the house

вести домашнее хозяйство

save time and effort

экономить время и силы

scorch [þl

опалять, прожечь(во время глажения)

scrape []

отскабливать

scrub [ö] the floor

тереть, чистить щёткой пол

set things right

ремонтировать

sew [@]

шить

smudge [ö³]

сажать пятно

soap suds [södz]

мыльная пена или вода

 

sort out things

сортировать, разбирать что-либо

spill

1) проливать(-ся), разливать(-ся) 2) рассыпать(-ся)

squeeze []

жать, отжимать

stain (make a ~)

пятно (пачкать)

starch [¸]

крахмалить

start a machine включать машину

 

sweep (up) the floor, the dirt, etc.

мести, подметать, чистить, очищать

take down the curtains

снимать занавески

take the dirt out to the dustbin

высыпать мусор в ведро

thorough cleaning (do a ~ )

генеральная уборка(делать генеральную уборку)

tidy up

прибирать

tidy out/(do) the tidying out

разбирать вещи с целью выбросить что-либо

tuck [ö] things away

прятать (убирать) вещи

tumble-dryer [ö@]

электросушилка (для белья)

turn a blind eye to smth.

закрывать глаза на что-либо

turn out (a room, etc.)

делать уборку (комнаты и пр.)

vacuum [@]

пылесосить

vacuum cleaner

пылесос

washing

1) бельё, предназначенное для стирки

2) стирка

wash, do the/one's washing

стирать

wash by hand

стирать вручную

washable

нелиняющий, стирающийся

wash-board

стиральная доска

wash tub

бак стиральной машины

wash up

мыть посуду

washing line

верёвка бельевая

washing soda [@@]

стиральный порошок

washing up

мытьё посуды

whites (л., pi.)

белое бельё (собир. сущ.)

wipe one's hands on smth.

вытирать руки о что-либо

wring

выжимать (бельё)

 

Conversational Formulas:

Give me a hand!

He has a wonderful pair of hands.

He worked like a horse/slave.

I'm dog-tired.

I worked my fingers to the bones.

Tired Tim.

Wipe the feet on the doormat!

 

Помоги мне!

У него золотые руки.

Он работал как вол/лошадь.

Я устал(а) как собака.

Я замучил(а) себя-работой.

Неисправимый лодырь.

Вытри ноги о половик!

 

Shopping for Food

add up prices

складывать стоимость

almond [¸@]

миндаль

apple

яблоко

apricot ['Á]

абрикос

afford smth.

позволить себе что-либо

bacon ['@]

бекон

baker's

булочная

banana [@¸@]

банан

bargain ['¸]

1) сделка 2) дёшево купленная вещь

bargain bins

корзины с уценённым товаром

bar-code

штрих-код

basket (wire ~, shopping ~)

корзинка

bass []

окунь

be laid out

иметь планировку, быть оборудованным (об интерьере магазина)

beans

бобы

beef

говядина

beer

пиво

beet (beetroot)

свёкла

brandy

бренди

bread roll

батон

brown/white bread

чёрный/белый хлеб

 

bunch

пучок

Buigundy [:(@)]

красное бургундское вино

butcher's

мясной магазин

butter

масло

buyer

покупатель

cabbage

капуста

cauliflower [Á"@]

цветная капуста

carrot

морковь

cucumber [üö@]

огурец

carrier bag

1) хозяйственная сумка

2) бумажная или полиэтиленовая сумка(выдаётся в магазине вместе с покупкой)

cart

тележка

carton [¸]

картонная коробка

cash (pay in ~)

деньги (платить наличными)

cash register [³@]

кассовый аппарат

cashier [@]

кассир

cereals [@@] (и., pi.)

крупяные изделия

champagne []

шампанское

change

1) сдача

2) мелкие деньги

check-out point

касса на выходе

cheese

сыр

chicken

цыплёнок (в кулинарии — кура)

chocolates (n., pi.)

шоколадные конфеты

cod

треска

cognac [Á]

коньяк

collect smth. from the racks

брать что-либо с полок

conveyor [@@] belt

лента конвейера

counter (sell below the ~)

прилавок (продавать из-под ~)

cream

сливки

customer

покупатель

cut in front of smb.

влезть в очередь перед кем-либо

dairy [@] shop

молочный магазин

display

располагать, раскладывать

 

dried

сушёный

dmm

баночка (о бытовой химии, специях)

duck

утка

egg

яйцо

ends of cuts

обрезки

expire [@]

истекать (о сроке хранения)

expiry [@] date

срок хранения

family pack

большая упаковка

family-size

большой, на всю семью

fishmonger's ['"öÎ@]

рыбный магазин

flour [@]

мука

food store

гастроном

foodstuffs (n., pi.)

продукты питания

frozen

замороженный

grape-fruit [ü]

грейпфрут

grapes (n., pi.)

виноград

greens (n., pi.)

зелень

greengrocer's

магазин «Овощи—фрукты»

grocer's

бакалея

ham

ветчина

have cash on smb.

иметь с собой деньги

herring

сельдь, селедка

honey

мёд

item

покупка

lemon [@]

лимон

lettuce []

салат

lobster

омар; большой речной рак

make out a bill/cheque []

выписать счёт/чек

mai-garine ["¸³@'Ö]

маргарин

marked prices

наклеенные ценники

Martini [¸Ö]

мартини

mayonnaise ["()@]

майонез

melon

дыня

mushroom

гриб

mutton

баранина

net bag

сеточка (для продуктов)

nut

орех

 

oatmeal

овсяные хлопья

onion [önI@n]

лук

orange

апельсин

pack

упаковывать

packet

пакет

pasta [¸@]

макаронные изделия

patisserie [@Ö@]

кондитерские изделия

pear [@]

груша

peach

персик

peas (pi.)

горох

per kilo

за килограмм

pick up from the rack

взять с полки

pile up

заполнить до верха

pineapple []

ананас

plum

слива

pork

свинина

potato

картофель

poultry ['@]

птица (собир. сущ.)

prepackaged/prepacked

расфасованный

pre-planned goods

товары, которые кто-либо собирался купить

pre-prepared goods

полуфабрикаты

purchase [Æ:@]

n. — покупка

v. — покупать

queue [kju:] (jump the ~)

очередь (пройти без очереди)

quick till

экспресс-касса

rack

полка (в магазине)

radish

редис

raisins [] (и., pi.)

изюм

rice

рис

salami [@¸]

салями

salesgirl

продавщица

salmon [@]

лосось (мн. ч. без им.)

sausage [Á³]

1) колбаса, 2) сосиска

scales []

весы

Scotch

шотландское виски

sherry

херес

 

shop assistant

продавец

shopper

покупатель

shopping list

список покупок

shopping load

гора покупок

shopping trip/expedition

поход по магазинам

shrimps (n., pi.)

креветки

skimmed milk

обезжиренное молоко

sole

камбала; палтус

sort one's change out

набрать мелочь

sour [@] cream

сметана

spaghetti [@]

спагетти

speciaroffer

товар со скидкой

spinach [³]

шпинат

strawberry

клубника

sugar

сахар

supermarket

супермаркет

sweet

леденец, конфета

till

касса

tin

консервная банка

tinned

консервированный

tobacconist's

магазин «Сигареты-Табак»

toffee [Á]

конфета типа ириса, сливочной тянучки

tomato

помидор

total up

подсчитать

transparent [@]

прозрачные упаковки

wrappings

 

 

trolley [Á]

тележка

tub

1) бочонок

2) баночка

tuna [ü@]

тунец

underweight

недовес

veal

телятина

vodka

водка

water-melon

арбуз

weigh []

взвешивать

wheel the trolley

катить тележку

wine

вино

 

wrap [] (up)

заворачивать

yog(h)urt [Áý]

йогурт

Conversational Formulas:

 

 

Can I help you?

Вам помочь?

Here's your change.

Вот Ваша сдача.

Here's your change from your ...

Вот Ваша сдача

pounds/dollars ... note.

с ... фунтов/долларов.

How much do I owe you?

Сколько я Вам должен?

How much does it come to?

Сколько всего?

How much is it?

Сколько с меня?

I'll save smth. for you.

Я вам оставлю.

That's a bargain.

Это очень дёшево.

That's expensive.

Это дорого.

We've sold out at the moment.

Сейчас всё распродано.

What can I get for you?

Чего желаете?

What does it cost?

Сколько это стоит?

Will that be all?

Это всё?

Will this do?

Это годится?

 

Shopping for Consumer Goods

accessories [@]

аксессуары

advertise [@]

рекламировать

afford

позволить себе (купить)

antique ['Ö] shop

магазин антиквариата

art shop

художественная лавка

article

предмет продажи; товар

bargain-hunter

завсегдатай распродаж

be good on smb.

хорошо сидеть на ком-либо

be loose on smb.

сидеть свободно (об одежке)

be of service

быть полезным

be on offer

быть в продаже

be two sizes too large (small)

1. быть на два размера , больше (меньше)

bookshop

книжный магазин

 

boutique [üÖ]

небольшой магазин женской одежды, модная лавка

browse [] through

рассматривать (товар)

changing room

примерочная

check-out till

касса

choice of goods

выбор товаров

client [@]

клиент

come off

отрываться (о пуговице, ярлыке и пр.)

come undone

расходиться (о шве, молнии и пр.)

come unstuck

отклеиваться

cost the earth

стоить бешеные деньги

costly

дорогой

courteous [Æ:@]

вежливый, обходительный

customer

постоянный покупатель

dear

дорогой (о цене)

department store

универмаг

discount []

скидка

display

витрина

display goods

выставлять товар на витрине

drapery department/draper's [@]

отдел/магазин тканей

exchange

обменивать

extravagant [@@] ,

расточительный

faulty [þ] goods

товары с дефектами

festive []

праздничный

fit

быть впору

florist's/flower shop

цветочный магазин

furniture shop

мебельный магазин

gift shop

магазин подарков

give (about things)

растягиваться (о вещах)

give a discount

предоставлять скидку

glace [']

лаковый

go cheap

дешеветь

go sky-high

повышаться (о ценах)

go well with smth.

подходить, гармонировать

haberdashery [@@]

галантерея

 

hi-fi store ['þ]

магазин аудио-видеотехники

hosiery [@@] department

отдел чулочных изделий

instep

подъём (о ступне)

ironmonger's [@öÎ@]

магазин скобяных изделий

jeweller's [³ü@@]

ювелирный магазин

kiosk ['ÖÁ]

киоск

knitwear

трикотаж, вязаные вещи

leather [D@]

кожа, кожаный

leisurewear

одежда для отдыха и туризма

lingerie [Z@Ö] department

отдел дамского белья

loafers

уличные туфли, ботинки

look around

рассматривать товар

mall

торговый центр

manageress

заведующая

mannequin []

манекен

match

подходить (по цвету, стилю)

measure ['Z@]

измерять

merchandise [Æ:@]

товары

millinery [] department

отдел дамских шляп

money spinner

прибыльное дело

nightwear

ночное белье

optician's [Á@]

оптика

order

заказывать

overheads (я., pi.)

накладные расходы

pet shop

зоомагазин

photographic shop

магазин фототоваров

pinch

жать (об обуви)

purchase [Æ:@]

покупка

purchaser

покупатель

price (cut/reduce ~)

цена (снижать ~)

(increase/raise ~)

(поднимать ~)

queue [kju:]/line (Am.)

п. — очередь

v. — стоять в очереди

rack

полка

radio [@] shop

магазин радиотоваров

range of goods

ассортимент товаров

record [þ] shop

магазин грампластинок

 

retail [Ö]

n. — розница

v. — продавать в розницу

receipt [Ö]

чек

refund

n. — [Öö] возмещение расходов

v. – [ö] возмещать расходы

run

линять (о цвете, краске)

run out of smth.

кончаться, распродавать

sale (be on ~)

распродажа (быть в продаже)

sell out

распродавать

shop around

присматриваться к ценам, качеству; подбирать подходящий товар

shopper

покупатель

devoted shopper

любитедь(ница) покупок

shopping centre/precinct [ÖÎ]

торговый центр

shop counter

прилавок

shrink

садиться (об одежде)

size

размер

spend money

тратить деньги

spendthrift/big spender

транжир(ка)

sports shop

магазин спорттоваров

stall [þ]

ларёк, киоск

stationer's [@@]

магазин канцтоваров

stiletto ['@] shoes

туфли на шпильках

stock

п. — ассортимент товаров

v. — иметь в продаже

stretch

растягиваться

substandard ["ö@]

некондиционный

suede []

замша

suit [s(j)u:t]

быть к лицу

super buy

отличная покупка

tight []

тесный

toy shop

магазин игрушек

trendy

модный

try smth. on

примерять

value for money

выгодная покупка

 

vendor[@]

торговец

wait on smb.

обслуживать

waste money

тратить деньги

wholesale

вести оптовую торговлю

window shopping (go ~)

разглядывание витрин(разглядывать витрины, ничего не покупая)

Conversational Formulas:

 

 

Are you in the queue/line?

Вы стоите?

Are you the last in the queue/line?

Вы последний?

It's not my size.

Это не мой размер.

What do you have in size 7?

Какие у вас есть седьмого размера?

This colour shoe does not match my dress.

Эти туфли по цвету не подходят к платью.

I'll pay in cash/by card/by cheque.

Я заплачу наличными/магнитной картой/чеком.

 

Meals and Cooking

aperitif [¸"Ö|

аперитив

appetite ['{]

аппетит

bake

печь

baking pan

форма для выпечки

be overweight

иметь лишний вес

be ready for dinner ...

быть готовым пообедать

be seated at the table

сидеть за столом

beat

отбивать; взбивать

beverage [@³]

напиток

biscuit []

печенье

boil

варить, кипятить

bolt [@]

заглатывать

book the table

заказать столик

 

borsch [þS]

борщ

breadcrumbs

панировочные сухари

breakfast

завтрак

bring to the boil

довести до кипения

broil

жарить на открытом огне

buffet [']

буфет

bun

булочка

cafe []

кафе

cafeteria ["@@@]

кафетерий

cake

пирожное, кекс

calorie/caloly [@]

калория

canteen ['Ö]

столовая (фабричная, заводская)

casserole [@@]

запеканка

champ

чавкать, жевать

chew

жевать

choke on smth.

подавиться чем-либо

chicken Kiev

котлеты по-киевски

chop

п. — отбивная котлета

v. — 1) рубить, нарезать, шинковать; 2) пропустить через мясорубку

cocoa [@@]

какао

coffee

кофе

condiment [Á@]

приправа

continental breakfast

континентальный завтрак

cook

готовить

corn flakes

кукурузные хлопья

cmnch

грызть с хрустом, хрустеть

crust

корка (хлеба), корочка (пирога)

cuisine [Ö]

кухня, кулинарное искусство

cutlet

отбивная котлета

delicious

вкусный

dessert [dI'zÆ:t]

десерт

devour [@]

есть жадно, поглощать, пожирать

drink to smth.

пить за что-либо

 

double Martini

двойная порция мартини

dough [d@]

тесто

doughnut ['d@öt]

пончик, пышка

dumpling

клецка

eat out

есть в ресторане, кафе и пр.

eat with a fork/fingers

есть вилкой/руками

eclair [@]

эклер

fast food restaurant

ресторан быстрого обслуживания

fattening products

продукты, от которых полнеют

fillet []

филе

fish and chips

рыба с жареным картофелем

fried eggs

яичница

fry

жарить

frying pan

сковорода

garnish [¸]

гарнир

glutton

обжора

gnaw [nþ]

грызть, глодать

gobble

есть быстро, жадно и шумно, пожирать

gourmand [@@]

лакомка, гурман

gravy []

мясной соус, подлива

groan with food

ломиться от еды

grill

жарить на гриле

gulp

глотать с жадностью или поспешностью

hard-boiled/soft-boiled eggs

яйца, сваренные вкрутую/всмятку

have a sweet tooth

быть сладкоежкой

have breakfast/dinner

завтракать/обедать

have meals

есть, принимать пищу

healthy food

здоровая пища

heat

подогревать

hog

пожирать, заглатывать

home-made preserves

домашние консервы

hot

1) горячий

2) острый, пряный, перченый

 

hot drink

горячительный напиток

inedible [@]

несъедобный

jam

варенье

jelly

желе

juice [³ü]

сок

keep the diet

соблюдать диету

lard

жир (кулинарный)

lay the table for two

накрыть стол на двоих

lose weight

худеть

lunch

ланч, второй завтрак

luncheon

официальный завтрак

macaroni ["@@]

макароны

marmalade [¸@]

апельсиновый джем

meat balls

тефтели

meat/fish/sweet course

мясное/рыбное/сладкое блюдо

melt

растопить

meringue [@Î]

меренга, безе

mince

1) крошить, рубить

2) пропускать через мясорубку

minced meat

фарш

mix

смешивать

muffin [ö]

1) горячая булочка

2) оладья

3) кекс (амер.)

munch

жевать (беззубым ртом), чавкать

mustard

горчица

nibble

1) грызть, глодать

2) - at smth.— покусывать что-либо

orange juice

апельсиновый сок

oven ['ö]

духовка

overdone

пережаренный

pan

кастрюля

pancake

блин

paste []

паста; паштет

pasta [¸@]

1) макаронные изделия

2) итальянские блюда из макарон

 

pastry []

кондитерские изделия

pickles []

соленья, маринады

pie

пирог

pizzeria ["Ö@(:)@]

пиццерия

porridge

жидкая овсяная каша

portion

порция

powdered sugar

сахарная пудра

pub

паб

puff pastry

слоёное тесто

raise a glass

поднять бокал

ravioli ["@]

равиоли; пельмени

recipe []

рецепт

refectory ['@]

столовая (в колледже, университете)

restaurant ['rest(@)rÁnt]

ресторан

rich

сдобный (о тесте, изделиях из теста)

rind []

кожица, кожура плода

roast

жарить,запекать

roll

булочка

roll out

раскатать

rub smth. into smth.

растереть что-либо с чем-ли(

rusk

сухарь

Russian beet salad

винегрет

salad

салат

sandwich

бутерброд

sauce [þ]

соус

saucepan [þ@]

кастрюля

say/pronounce a toast

сказать/произнести тост

seafood restaurant

рыбный ресторан

shortcrust

песочное тесто

shrimp

креветка

simmer

кипеть на медленном огне, закипать

sizzle

шипеть (при жарений)

slim

худеть

snack bar

закусочная

soak

замачивать, пропитывать

 

soft drink

безалкогольный напиток

souffle ['su:fle]

суфле

spaghetti [@]

спагетти

specialty [@]

фирменное блюдо

spicy []

острый, приправленный специями

squeeze out

отжать

starter

закуска

steak

бифштекс

stick to a diet

соблюдать диету

stir [stз:]

мешать, помешивать

strain

процеживать

stuff

начинять, фаршировать

substantial

плотный (о завтраке, обеде)

swallow

глотать

take milk in one's coffee/tea

пить кофе/чай с молоком

takeaway [@] food

блюдо, отпускаемое на вынос

taste smth.

попробовать что-либо

tea

чай

toast

1) тост, ломтик подрумяненного хлеба

2) тост, застольная речь

underdone

недожаренный

vermicelli ["vз:]

вермишель

waffle [Á]

вафля

wait on smb.

обслуживать кого-либо

waiter

официант

whipped cream

взбитые сливки

whisk

сбивать (белки и т. п.)

whistling kettle

чайник со свистком

Conversational formulas:

 

 

I'm thirsty.

Я хочу пить.

I'm hungry.

Я хочу есть.

I'm starving.

Я очень хочу есть(умираю от голода).

Thank you, I've had enough.

Спасибо, я сыт.

 

The potatoes (the spaghetti) need some salt.

Картофель (спагетти) недосолен(ы).

Would you like some more?

Хотите ещё?

No, not for me, thanks.

Нет, мне не надо, спасибо.

Could you pass me the salt?

Не могли бы вы передать соль?

It is just the kind my mother makes.

Моя мама готовит точно так же.

 

College Life

analytical reading

аналитическое чтение

applicant [@]

абитуриент

assignment [@@]

задание

assistant professor

и.о. доцента

associate professor

доцент

Bachelor's degree

[@@Ö]

степень бакалавра

be absorbed

быть поглощённым, увлечённым

be bored

скучать

be good at smth.

хорошо уметь делать что-либо

be used to smth.

привыкнуть к чему-либо

be on

идти (о лекции, занятии)

be smth. by training

быть кем-либо по специальности

campus [@]

кампус, территория университета, колледжа или школы

carry on scientific/research work

вести научно- исследовательскую работу

catch up (with)

навёрстывать упущенное,

 

 

догонять

certificate [@@]

свидетельство (об окончании среднего учебного заведения, и пр.)

cheat

пользоваться шпаргалкой

 

check up

проверять

coach

обучать (одного или группу)

coach smb. for an exam

готовить кого-либо к экзамену

college;

университетский колледж университет; специальное высшее учебное заведение (педагогическое, военное и т. п.); средняя школа с интернатом

college work

учёба в колледже

come down to a choice

встать перед выбором

composition

сочинение

conversation

устная практика, разговор (аспект преподавания иностранного языка)

cram наспех

зазубривать

crib

n. — шпаргалка;

v. — списывать тайком

curriculum [@@]

учебная программа

deal with smb.

иметь дело с кем-либо

dean

декан

dean's office

кабинет декана

degree (to take one's ~)

ученая степень, звание (получить ~)

department

отделение

devote much time to studies

посвящать, уделять много времени учёбе

diploma ['@@]

диплом, свидетельство

disrupt classes

срывать занятия

dissertation ["@]

диссертация, трактат

distraction [@]

то, что отвлекает внимание

do postgraduate work

учиться в аспирантуре

do well

справляться, успевать, хорошо учиться

educate [³]

давать образование, воспитывать

education [³] (primaiy/secondary/higher ~)

образование, обучение (начальное/среднее/ высшее ~)

 

educational system

система образования

enter a university

поступить в университет

examine

экзаменовать, принимать экзамен

examination (exam)

экзамен

examination period (exams)

экзаменационная сессия

examination question (paper)

экзаменационный билет

essay []

сочинение, эссе

faculty

факультет

faculty office

деканат

fail an examination in smth.

провалиться на экзамене

failure [@]

провал, неудача

fall (lag) behind

отставать

final exams (finals)

выпускные экзамены

freshman (Am.)

первокурсник (амер.)

full-time student

студент дневного отделения

get down to work

приниматься за работу

get on well (in/at smth.)

хорошо успевать (по какому-либо предмету)

give a pass

поставить зачет

give up

оставить, отказаться (от работы, учёбы)

go to lectures

ходить на лекции

go up to university

поступать в университет

grammar

грамматика

grammatical theory

теоретическая грамматика

grade (Am.)

оценка (амер.)

graduate [³] from a university

окончить университет

graduate [³]

выпускник

graduation dissertation

дипломная работа

grant [¸]

стипендия

grind [] away (for, at)

зубрить

have a lecture

проводить лекцию

have classes in smth.

проводить занятия-по какому-либо предмету

have a good command [@¸] of smth.

хорошо владеть чем-либо; хорошо уметь делать что-либо

 

head of department

зав. кафедрой

hold examinations

проводить экзамены

holidays (vacation)

каникулы

home-reading

домашнее чтение

homework

домашнее задание

hostel [Á]

общежитие

improve

совершенствовать(ся)

instruct

обучать (чаще практическим навыкам)

junior ['³ü@]

студент младших курсов

keep up (with smb.)

не отставать, держаться наравне с кем-либо

keep in one's head

держать в голове

lack (smth.)

не хватать (о чём-либо)

learn

изучать, учить, учиться

learn smth. by heart

учить наизусть

lecture

лекция

lecturer

преподаватель, лектор

library card

читательский билет

live in a hall of residence

жить в общежитии

major [³@] in smth. (Am.)

специализироваться по какому-либо предмету (в колледже и т. п.)

make progress (in smth.)

делать успехи (в чём-либо)

Master's degree

степень магистра

master

владеть, овладевать (языком и т. п.)

memorize [@]

заучивать наизусть

miss classes

(~ on a plausible [þ@]excuse, for a good reason)

пропускать занятия

(~ по уважительной причине)

neglect

пропускать, забрасывать

oral ['þr@l]

защита диссертации

paper

доклад

pass an examination

сдать экзамен

pass in smth.

выдержать экзамен

part-time student

студент вечернего отделения

period [@@]

урок, учебный час

 

Philology

филология

phonetics [@]

фонетика

pick up

(разг.) нахвататься (обрывков знаний), научиться, не обучаясь специально, между делом

pick up a foreign language

нахвататься фраз на иностранном языке

play truant ['tru:@nt]

прогуливать уроки

post-graduate ["@] student

аспирант

professor

профессор

put off

откладывать

read up for exams

готовиться к экзаменам

reader

преподаватель (университета), лектор

record book

(students' record book)

зачётная книжка

rector

ректор

scholarship [Á@]

стипендия

(apply for a ~)

подавать документы на получение стипендии

(get/receive/win a ~)

получать стипендию

semester (Am.) [@]

семестр

senior ['si:n@]

студент старшего курса

senior lecturer

старший преподаватель

session [@]

сессия

students' membership card

студенческий билет

subdean

зам. декана

specialize in smth.

специализироваться в чём-либо

students' council

студенческий совет

students' society

студенческое общество

study

заниматься, изучать (какой-либо предмет)

synopsis [Á], pl. -es [i:z]

конспект(ы)

take a degree

получить учёную степень

take an examination

держать, сдавать экзамен

take notes

делать записи, пометки

talk

беседа, лекция, сообщение

(give a ~ on smth.)

сделать сообщение на тему/о ...

 

teach (English)

преподавать (английский язык)

teacher (a history teacher)

учитель, преподаватель (учитель истории)

teacher training

подготовка к преподавательской деятельности

teacher's certificate

диплом учителя

teacher's training college

педагогический институт

teaching profession

профессия педагога

teaching staff [st¸f]

преподавательский состав

test period

зачётная сессия

thesis [TÖ@], pi. -es [i:z]

диссертация(и)

train

обучать, обучаться, учить (профессии, мастерству)

translation

перевод

tuition [tjir'ifan]

обучение

pay tuition fee

оплачивать обучение

free (half) tuition

бесплатное обучение (половина платы)

tutor ['tju:t@]

п. — руководитель группы студентов

v. — давать частные уроки; руководить работой студентов

(~ smb in Latin)

учить кого-либо латинскому языку

tutorial [ü'þ@]

1) занятие,

2) консультация

undergraduate [ö@"³]

студент

university

университет

vice-rector

проректор

written composition

письменная практика

written reproduction

изложение

yearly ['@] essay

курсовая работа

Conversational formulas:

 

 

I have passed.

Я сдал.

I have failed.

Я не сдал.

То get smth. down pat.

Вызубрить так, чтоб от зубов отскакивало.

Crammer/tool/mug.

Зубрилка.

It goes in one ear and out the other.

В одно ухо влетает, в другое вылетает.

He crammed the pupil for an examination.

Он натаскивал ученика к экзамену.

 

Character and Appearance

absent-minded

рассеянный, невнимательный

add to one's attraction

делать более привлекательным

appeal to smb.

привлекать

aquiline []

орлиный (о носе)

attractive

привлекательный

bald [þ]

лысый; плешивый

bear no resemblance to smb.

быть непохожим на кого-либо

be characteristic of smb.

быть характерным для кого-либо

be dressed in smth.

быть одетым во что-либо

be dressed up

быть разодетым

be in the habit of doing smth.

иметь привычку что-либо делать

be in one's mid/late thirties,

быть в возрасте за 30, 40

forties, etc.

и т.д.

be the perfect type of smb.

быть воплощением/ превосходным образцом кого-либо

be very much the same in appearance

быть очень похожим внешне

beauty

красавица

broad-shouldered

широкоплечий

calm

спокойный

capable

способный

charming

очаровательный

close-set

близко поставленные (о глазах)

 

clumsy

неуклюжий

coarse [kþs]

грубый

comb back

зачёсывать назад

complexion

цвет лица

conduct [Áö]

поведение

considerate

отзывчивый, чуткий

constitution ["Áü]

сложение

cordial [þ@]

сердечный, радушный

courage ['ö³]

храбрость, отвага, смелость, мужество, бодрость духа

curious [@@]

1) любознательный

2) любопытный

3) возбуждающий любопытство

curly

кудрявый, вьющийся (о волосах)

dark-skinned

смуглый, темнокожий

deep-set

глубоко посаженные (о глазах)

delicately built

хрупкого телосложения

determined

решительный, твёрдый

dimpled

с ямочками (о щеках)

done in a knot [Á]

собранные в узел (о волосах)

dreamy

мечтательный

dress tastily/cleanly/smartly

одеваться со вкусом/аккуратно/ модно, элегантно

enjoy good health

обладать отменным здоровьем

envious

завистливый

even-tempered

уравновешенный

extravagant [@@]

1) сумасбродный, нелепый

2) расточительный

fair-haired

светловолосый

fat

толстый, полный

finely-curved

с красивым изгибом

firmness

1) твёрдость

2) неизменность, постояноство, непоколебимость

frank

откровенный

freckled []

- веснушчатый

fussy

суетливый, беспокойный

 

generosity

1) великодушие, благородство

2) щедрость

generous

1) великодушный, благородный

2) щедрый

gentle

1) мягкий, добрый, кроткий

2) нежный, ласковый

gesture [³@]

жест

gloomy

1) мрачный

2) угрюмый, подавленный

3) хмурый, унылый

go back on one's words

нарушать слово, отказываться от своих слов

good-looking

красивый, интересный, хорошенький

good looks

хорошие внешние данные, красота, миловидность

good mixer

общительный человек

handsome [@]

красивый

have a high opinion of oneself

быть о себе высокого мнения

have a way with smb.

быть обаятельным, располагать к себе

have smth. one's own way

поступать по-своему

hazel [@]

карий (о глазах)

honesty [Á]

честность, правдивость, прямота

hooked []

крючковатый (о носе)

hot-tempered

вспыльчивый

humility

смирение, покорность, кротость

hypocritical ["@]

лицемерный

ignoramus ["@@]

невежда

ill-bred

плохо воспитанный

ill-mannered

с плохими манерами

ill-tempered

с плохим характером

the very image of smb.

точная копия кого-либо

industrious [ö@]

трудолюбивый, усердный, прилежный

inquiring [@Î]

любознательный

inquisitive []

любознательный, пытливый

intellect [@]

интеллект

 

intellectual ["@@]

интеллектуальный, умный

intelligence

ум, смышлёность

intelligent

умный

jealous [³@]

ревнивый

listless

равнодушный, безразличный, апатичный

long-armed

с длинными руками

long-legged

длинноногий

look like smb.

быть похожим на кого-либо

look one's age

выглядеть на свои годы

look old/young for one's age

выглядеть старым/молодо

mediocrity ["ÖÁ]

посредственность

(of) medium height

среднего роста

mild

тихий, мягкий

modest

скромный

narrow-minded

ограниченный, недалекий, с предрассудками

narrow-shouldered

узкоплечий

naughty [þ]

непослушный, шаловливый

nervous

1) нервный

2) нервирующий

3) взволнованный

nosy

любопытный, сующий всюду свой нос

(dis)obedient

(не)послушный, (не)покорный

obstinate [Á]

упрямый, упорный

open-handed

щедрый

parted on the right/left side/in the middle

с пробором справа/ слева/ посередине

patience

терпение

patient

терпеливый

pensive []

задумчивый, мечтательный

plait []

коса

ins

заплетённый в косы

plump

полный, толстый, пухлый

pointed

острый (о подбородке)

(im)polite

(не)вежливый

pragmatic

прагматичный, практичный

 

precocious ['@@]

развитый не по годам (часто с отрицательной коннотацией)

quarrelsome ['Á@@]

вздорный, драчливый, задиристый

resemble smb.

походить на кого-либо

reserved

сдержанный, замкнутый, необщительный

responsible

ответственный, разумный

responsive

отзывчивый, чувствительный

mde

грубый

scrooge [ü³]

скряга

self-assured

самоуверенный

selfish

эгоистичный

sense of humour

чувство юмора

sensible

разумный

sensitive

1) чувствительный, восприимчивый

2) обидчивый

serious ['@@]

серьезный

silky

шелковистый (о волосах)

sincere [@]

искренний

sincerity []

искренность

shoulder length

длиной до плеч (о волосах)

shrewd [ü]

1) проницательный, тонкий (об уме)

2) хитрый, злобный

shy

робкий

skinny

тощий

slanting [¸Î]

раскосый

slender

стройный

slim

1) тонкий, изящный, стройный

2) хрупкий (о телосложении)

(unsociable

(не)общительный

solidly-built

крепкого телосложения

spendthrift ["T]

мот, транжира

steep

крутой (о лбе)

stingy [³]

скупой, жадный

straight []

прямой

 

stubborn

упрямый, упорный

sympathetic

сочувственный, сочувствующий

take after smb.

походить на кого-либо, быть похожим

thrifty

экономный, бережливый

thoughtful [Tþ]

1) думающий, мыслящий

2) заботливый, внимательный

timid

скромный, робкий

tolerance

терпимость

tolerant

терпимый

ugly

уродливый

up-turned

вздёрнутый (о носе)

wavy

волнистый (о волосах)

weak-willed

слабовольный

well-bred

хорошо воспитанный

well-brought up

хорошо воспитанный

wicked []

1) злой, злобный

2) безнравственный, порочный, грязный

wise []

мудрый

witty

остроумный

wrinkled [Î(@)]

морщинистый

Conversational Formulas:

 

 

He is always the heart and soul of the company.

Он всегда — душа компании.

She has lost her good looks.

Она подурнела.

She is the picture of health.

Она — кровь с молоком.

They arc as like as two peas.

Они похожи как две капли воды.

They get along well with each other.

Они хорошо ладят друг с другом.

 

Weather

be cast with clouds

быть затянутым облаками

be caught in a storm

быть застигнутым бурей

be subject to changes

быть переменчивым (о погоде)

 

beastly [Ö]

мерзкий (о погоде)

bedew [ü]

оросить, увлажнить

blast/gust of wind

порыв ветра

blizzard ['@]

метель, вьюга

blow

дуть

break

наступить (об утре, дне)

breeze

легкий ветер, бриз

bright

ясный, яркий

brighten up

проясняться

brisk

свежий (о ветре)

cast [¸]

отбрасывать (тень)

change for the better

улучшиться

chill

холодный, студёный

chilly

холодный

clean

чистый

clear

чистый, без облаков

clear up

проясняться

cool

прохладный

damp

влажный (холодный и влажный)

die down/away -

утихнуть (о ветре)

downpour [þ]

ливень

drench

проливной дождь

draught [¸]

1) глоток

2) поток

3) сквозняк

drizzle

n. — мелкий дождь, изморось v. — моросить

drought []

засуха

drip

капать

drop

капля

dry

сухой (о погоде, климате)

dull

пасмурный

fall

выпадать (о дожде)

flash

вспышка

flood [ö]

наводнение

fog

туман

freeze

морозить

 

fresh

свежий

frost

мороз

gale

сильный ветер, шторм

get cold

холодать, становиться холодно

get stiff/numb with cold

окоченеть от холода

get under the rain

попасть под дождь

glazed frost

гололёд

greenhouse effect

парниковый эффект

ground frost

заморозок

grow hot/warm/cold

становиться жарко/тепло/ холодно

hail

град

have a frost-bitten nose

отморозить нос

haze

легкий туман, дымка, мгла

heat

n. — жара

v. — согревать, греть

heavy

сильный (о дожде)

hoarfrost ['þÁ]

иней, изморозь

humid [ü]

влажный (тёплый и влажный)

hurricane [ö@]

ураган

Ice Age

ледниковый период

ice drift

ледоход

icicle []

сосулька

icing [Î]

гололедица, обледенение

Indian summer

бабье лето

intermittent

временами (о погоде)

lightning [Î]

молния

loom

маячить

mackerel [] sky

небо с барашками облаков

melt

таять

meteorologist ["Ö@'Á@³]

метеоролог

mist

лёгкий туман, дымка

moderate [Á@@]

умеренный

moist [O]

влага

mount []

подняться, всходить

nasty [¸]

отвратительный, мерзкий, скверный

overcast

затянутый тучами

 

patchy

местами

pool

лужа

pour [þ]

лить (о дожде)

puddle [ö]

маленькая грязная лужица

rain curtain

завеса дождя

rainbow ['@]

радуга

rainfall

дождь, выпадение осадков

rainstorm

ливень с ураганом

roll of thunder

раскат грома

rumble [ö]

грохотать

shadow

тень

shower

ливень

shred

обрывок, полоса

slacken []

ослабевать, стихать

slant

скользить (о луче солнца)

sleet

дождь со снегом, мокрый снег

slush

талый снег, слякоть

smite (smote, smitten)

ударять (о молнии)

smoke

куриться

snowdrift

сугроб, занос

snowflake

снежинка

snowstonn

снежная буря

spell

период

squall [þ]

шквал

steam up

париться, подниматься (о паре)

strand

полоса

stream

n. — поток

v. — литься потоком

sun tan

солнечный загар

sunshine

солнце, солнечный свет

swirl [Æ:]

кружиться в водовороте, нестись вихрем

tatters (n., pi.) [@]

клочья

thaw [Tþ]

таять, оттаивать

thunder

гром

torrents (n., pi.) [Á@]

ливень

turn bad

испортиться (о погоде)

veil

завеса, пелена

 

weather forecast ['D@þ¸]

прогноз погоды

weather lore [D@"þ]

наука/знания о природе, народные приметы

weather sign ['D@"]

примета погоды

weatherman

метеоролог

whirlwind

вихрь

windy

ветренный

wretched []

мерзкий (о погоде)

Conversational Formulas:

 

 

A change is coming in the weather.

Погода меняется.

I am chilled to the bone.

Я продрог до костей.

I am drenched through.

Я вымок до нитки.

I am freezing.

Мне холодно.

I am soaked to the skin;

Я промок до нитки.

I feel hot.

Мне жарко.

It'll change for the better.

Погода переменится к лучшему.

It's getting/growing warm/cold.

Становится тепло/холодно.

It's pouring!

Льёт как из ведра!

The weather is fine/nice/awful.

Погода  прекрасная/ хорошая/ ужасная.

The weather keeps nice.

Стоит хорошая погода.

We are in for a spell of good weather.

Ожидается хорошая погода.

 

Меркулова Е. М., Филимонова О. Е., Костыгина С. И., Иванова Ю. А., Папанова Л. В.

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ УНИВЕРСИТЕТОВ

ЧТЕНИЕ, ПИСЬМЕННАЯ И УСТНАЯ ПРАКТИКА

Редактор Нейтан Франклин Лонган, профессор кафедры

современных языков и литератур, Оклендский университет

Редактор, корректор Юлия Леонидовна Шишова

Художник Екатерина Львовна Янина

Компьютерная верстка Елена Леонидовна Яшенкова

ЛР № 000373 от 30.12.99 г.

Подписано в печать 10.03.2000 г. Формат 84х1081/32.

Гарнитура «Ньютон». Печ. л. 12.

Печать офсетная. Бумага типографская.

Тираж 10 000 экз. Заказ № 312,

«Издательство Союз»

198095, Санкт-Петербург, ул. Шкапина, д. 23, литера А.

Отпечатано с готовых диапозитивов

в ГИПК «Ленизцат» (типография им. Володарского)

Министерства Российской Федерации по делам печати,

телерадиовещания и средств массовых коммуникаций.

191023, Санкт-Петербург, ваб. р. Фонтанки, 59.