to be located – бути розташованим / находиться, располагаться
to border on – межувати з / граничить с
to be washed by – омиватися / омываться
an autonomous republic – автономна республіка / автономная республика
a sovereign state – суверенна держава / суверенное государство
to declare/ to proclaim independence – проголошувати незалежність / провозглашать независимость
legislative power – законодавча влада / законодательная власть
executive power – виконавча влада / исполнительная власть
judicial power – судова влада / судебная власть
the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces – Головнокомандувач Збройних Сил / Главнокомандующий Вооружённых Сил
to be responsible for – бути відповідальним за / быть ответственным за
higher and local state bodies of power – вищі та місцеві органи державної влади / высшие и местные органы государственной власти
courts of general jurisdiction – суди загальної юрисдикції / суды общей юрисдикции
election – вибори / выборы
secret ballot – таємне голосування / тайное голосование
a right to vote – право голосу / право голоса
compulsory – обов’язковий / обязательный
to hold a referendum – проводити референдум / проводить референдум
a national holiday – національне свято / национальный праздник
Independence Day – День Незалежності / День Независимости
the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) – Співдружність Незалежних Держав / Содружество Независимых Государств
the United Nations (UN) – Організація Об’єднаних Націй (ООН) / Организация Объединённых Наций
the Council of Europe – Рада Європи / Совет Европы
the Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) – Організація Безпеки і Співробітництва в Європі (ОБСЄ) / Организация Безопасности и Сотрудничества в Европе (ОБСЕ)
- What country do you live in?
- We live in Ukraine, a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second largest country in Europe after Russia.
- What countries does Ukraine border on?
- It borders on Russia, Belarus, Moldova, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania.
- What seas is it washed by?
- It is washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and has very important ports.
- How many administrative regions is Ukraine divided into?
- It is divided into 24 administrative regions and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Kyiv, the capital of the state, and the city of Sevastopol have special status, their governments are responsible only to the central government in Kyiv.
- What other cities are there in Ukraine?
- There are many large cities in Ukraine, among them: Kharkiv, the first capital of Ukraine, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Odessa, Lviv and others.
- What do you know about the history of Ukraine?
- The Ukrainian state system dates back to the pre-Christian epoch. Kyiv Rus, which was formed on the basis of Slavic peoples, became a powerful state. But in 1240 Batu Khan captured Kyiv. Since then for centuries Ukraine was under the rule of a succession of foreign powers, including Poland and the Russian Empire.
- When did Ukraine become an independent state?
- In July 1990 the Ukrainian Parliament passed the Declaration of State Sovereignty. On August 24, 1991 the Ukrainian Parliament proclaimed the Act of Ukraine’s Independence. Now this day is a national holiday – Independence Day of Ukraine. On December 1, 1991 a nation-wide Ukrainian referendum was held and 92 per cent of the population spoke in favour of the Independence Act.
- What state system has Ukraine now?
- Now Ukraine is a parliamentary democracy. It has its own territory, higher and local bodies of state power, national emblem, state flag and anthem.
- Who is the head of the state?
- President is the head of the state. He is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Ukrainian Armed Forces.
- What branches of power are there in Ukraine?
- There are three branches of power: legislative, executive and judicial. The Supreme Council of Ukraine (the Verkhovna Rada) is the highest legislative body. It consists of a single chamber of 450 deputies elected for four-year term. The Cabinet of Ministers is the highest executive organ. The Prime Minister is the head of government and is responsible for carrying out its policy. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction. The Constitutional Court of Ukraine is the sole body of constitutional jurisdiction.
- How is the will of people expressed?
- The expression of the will of people is exercised through election. Parliamentary elections take place every five years in the last week of March. The President is elected by direct, majority vote (by secret ballot) for a term of five years and may serve no more than two consecutive terms.
- Who has the right to vote?
- All citizens of Ukraine of 18 years and over have the right to vote. Voting is not compulsory.
- What international organizations does Ukraine participate in?
- Ukraine is one of the founding members of the United Nations (UN) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). In November 1995 it became a full member of the Council of Europe. It is also a member of the Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
to be situated – знаходитись / находиться
to be separated from – бути відділеним від / быть отделённым от
a constitutional monarchy – конституційна монархія / конституционная монархия
the Queen – королева / королева
the House of Commons – Палата Общин (громад) / Палата Общин
the House of Lords – Палата Лордів / Палата Лордов
a constituency – виборчий округ / избирательный округ
the Shadow Cabinet – Тіньовий Кабінет / Теневой Кабинет
Lord Chancellor – Лорд-Канцлер (глава судового відомства та верховний суддя Англії, глава палати Лордів) / Лорд-Канцлер (глава судебного відомства и верховный судья Англии
Home Secretary – міністр внутрішніх справ / министр внутренних дел
criminal offences – карні злочини / уголовные преступления
a prison – в’язниця / тюрьма
a court – суд / суд
prevention – запобігання, попередження / предотвращение, предупреждение
treatment of offenders – поводження зі злочинцями / обращение с преступниками
case law – прецедентне право / прецедентное право
- What islands is the United Kingdom situated on?
- The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles, separated from the Continent by the North Sea and the English Channel.
- What parts is the UK made up of? What are their capitals?
- It consists of four parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast respectively. London is also the capital of the United Kingdom.
- What kind of state is Great Britain?
- Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy. It means that the country is governed by the Parliament and the Queen is the Head of the state.
- Is her power absolute?
- No, it isn’t absolute; it is limited by the Parliament. The Queen personally doesn’t decide what action the state shall take. Her Majesty’s Government governs in the name of the Queen who must act on the advice of her ministers. That’s why it is said that the Queen reigns, but doesn’t rule.
- What body exercises the legislative power in the country?
- The legislative power is exercised by Parliament, made up of two chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
- How are the chambers of the Parliament composed?
- The House of Commons has 651 members, elected from the
four parts that make up the United Kingdom. Each member
represents a voting district called a constituency. The House of
Lords is composed of about 1.200 members. The House of Lords has little real
power. It can delay, but not defeat, any bill that the House of
Commons is determined to pass.
-What is the executive branch of power?
-The executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and his Cabinet. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the political party that has the most seats in the House of Commons.
-What is the official opposition?
The second largest party becomes the official opposition
with its own leader and the Shadow Cabinet.
What are the two leading parties in Great Britain?
They are the Conservative Party and the Labour Party.
What can you say about the judicial branch of power?
The United Kingdom has no Ministry of Justice.
Responsibility for the administration of the judicial system in England and Wales is divided between the courts themselves, the Lord Chancellor and the Home Secretary.
The Lord Chancellor is responsible for the composition of the
courts, civil law, parts of criminal procedure and law reform in
general; the Home Secretary is responsible for the prevention
of criminal offences, trial and treatment of offenders and for
the prison service.
- Is there any written constitution in Great Britain?
-No, there isn’t. The British Constitution is an unwritten constitution, not being contained in a single legal document. It is based on statutes and important documents (such as the Magna Carta), case law (decisions taken by courts of law on constitutional matters), customs and conventions, and can be modified by a simple Act of Parliament like any other law.