The Bar in Ukraine : A Practical Guide to the Legal Profession in some English-speaking countries and Ukraine - С.М. Воронин и др : Книги по праву, правоведение

The Bar in Ukraine

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legal interests – законні інтереси / законные интересы

foreigners – іноземці / иностранцы

aliens –особи без громадянства / лица без гражданства

artificial persons – юридичні особи / юридические лица

higher legal education – вища юридична освіта / высшее юридическое образование

to take the oath – приймати присягу / принимать присягу

legal issues – юридичні питання / юридические вопросы

to draw up applications – складати (оформляти) звернення / составлять (оформлять) обращения

complaints – скарги / жалобы

to make representation – здійснювати представництво / осуществлять представительство

a letter of attorney – довіреність / доверенность

evidence – докази / доказательства

to question the defendant –  допитувати обвинуваченого / допрашивать обвиняемого

witnesses – свідки / свидетели

to submit evidence – представляти доказ /  представлять доказательство

trial – судовий розгляд / судебное разбирательство

to pronounce the speech for the defence – проголошувати захисну промову / произносить защитительную речь

to be entitled to do smth. – мати право робити що-небудь / иметь право делать что-либо

to handle the case by judicial supervision – розглянути справу у порядку судового контролю / рассмотреть дело в порядке судебного контроля

rule of law – верховенство права / верховенство права

publicity – гласність / гласность

self-government – самоврядування / самоуправление

What official document regulates the operation of the Bar in Ukraine?

The operation of the Bar in Ukraine is regulated by the “Law on the Bar” adopted in 1992.

What is the Bar of Ukraine?

The Bar of Ukraine is a voluntary, professional, public association which is called upon to protect the rights and freedoms and to represent the legal interests of the citizens of Ukraine, foreigners, aliens, artificial persons and give them other legal help.

Who may become an advocate in Ukraine?

According to the Law, a citizen of Ukraine, who has higher legal education, professional experience in the field of the legal profession for not less than two years, who has passed qualification exams, who has got a certificate, giving the right to operate as an advocate and who has taken the oath, may become an advocate.

What are the types of activities of the advocate?

Advocates give consultations and explanations concerning the legal issues, oral and written information concerning the legislation; draw up various applications, complaints and other documents of legal nature: make representation in courts and other artificial bodies; give legal help to enterprises, institutions and organizations.

What are professional rights of the advocate?

The advocate has the right to represent the rights and interests of citizens and artificial persons according to their letters of attorney in all bodies, institutions and organizations;

to collect information about the facts, which may be used as evidence in civil, economic, criminal and administrative cases.

What are the rights of the advocate in the trial?

He participates in questioning the defendant and the witnesses and submits evidence and at the end of the hearing of the trial he pronounces his speech for the defense. The advocate is entitled to appeal against the court judgement in a higher court to participate personally in its hearing and to lodge appeals for handling the case by judicial supervision. The advocates take an active part in legal proceedings on housing, labour, property and other disputes, representing the interests of clients.

What are organizational forms of the Bar?

The Bar of Ukraine carries out its activity on the principles of the rule of law, independence, democracy, humanism and confidentiality. The advocate has the right to carry out his professional activity individually, open his bureau, create legal firms, boards and other professional associations, which should operate according to the “Law on the Bar in Ukraine”.

The associations of advocates operate on the principles of voluntariness, self-government, collective leadership and publicity.

What is the main requirement for the person who plans to work as an advocate?

The functions of the advocate may be successfully discharged only by the persons who combine great professional experience with high moral qualities.

The Notary Bodies in Ukraine


to keep secret – зберігати в таємниці / хранить в тайне

application to the office – заява до служб (нотаріату) / обращение в нотариальную контору

to entrust on somebody – доручати кому-небудь / поручать кому-либо

to attest contract – завіряти договір / заверять договор

to provide for by the law – передбачати законом / предусматривать законом

transaction – угода, правочин / сделка

deal – угода,  правочин / сделка

to register hereditary rights – реєструвати право на спадок / регистрировать право на наследство

to have in possession – мати в володінні / владеть

to bequeath something – заповідати щось / завещать

to certify – засвідчувати / заверять

to transfer – передавати / передавать

to acquire property – придбати майно / приобретать собственность

joint property – спільна (сумісна) власність / совместная собственность

to keep house – вести господарство / вести хозяйство

to raise children – виховувати дітей / воспитывать детей

to dispose one’s share – розпорядитися чиєюсь часткою / распоряжаться частью

to protect the legacy – захищати спадщину (по заповіту) / защищать наследство (по завещанию)

to conclude treaty – укладати договір / заключать договор

inheritance – успадкування / наследование

deceased person – покійний / умерший

to ascertain the heirs – установлювати спадкоємців / устанавливать наследников

existence of a will –  існування заповіту / наличие завещания

What legislative act are the activities of the notary bodies regulated by?

The activities of the notary bodies are regulated by the law on State Notary Bodies.

Are the matters handled by the notary body kept secret?

Notaries keep secret all the operations done at the office. This concerns not only the content of the papers, but the very fact of application to the office as well.

What organs perform notary functions in Ukraine?

The main organs that perform notary functions are as follows: the state notary offices, the state notary archives. The notary functions may be performed by the private notaries and in local Soviets by the chairman, the secretary or a member of the executive committee (Articles 36, 37)

Who performs notary functions abroad?

The notary functions abroad are entrusted on the diplomatic or consular representatives of Ukraine. (Article 38).

Who can hold the office of notaries?

The office of notaries can be held by the citizens of Ukraine who have a higher legal education, and at least 6 months of work experience ,have past the qualification exam and received notary’s certificate.

What is the main task of the notary bodies in Ukraine?

The task of the notary bodies is to prevent various civil offences, to protect property rights and lawful interests of citizens, enterprises and organizations. They attest contracts, transactions and copies of documents, register hereditary rights and perform other notary actions provided for by the law. Thus, people have in their personal possession homes and dachas, (summer houses) cars, yachts, jewelry, antiques, works of art, etc. The owner has the right to do whatever he likes with this property – to sell it, give it away or bequeath it. Notary bodies certify such acts.

Deals connected with dwelling or dachas hold a special place, and it is obligatory that they be certified by a notary.

In what way do notary offices help citizens to realize their property rights?

The property, which a man and wife acquire while living together, is considered to be their joint property, even if one of them does not work but keeps house and raises the children. Therefore, when a house, for example, is sold the consent of both spouses is necessary. If either of them wishes to dispose of his or her share of the property at his or her own discretion, they have the right to apply to the notary office to get a certificate on the right to property. If some problems arise, it will be the court and not the notary office that will decide the question of the division of property between them.

In what cases does the notary office take measures to protect the legacy?

In case a single person dies the notary office takes measures to protect the legacy. This is also done when the legacy is to go to a citizen of another country after the death of a citizen of Ukraine.

What measures do the notary officials take to protect the property of the deceased foreign citizen?

Ukraine has concluded a number of treaties and agreements with other states on protection of inheritance on the principles of mutual assistance. Under these, the notary officials take measures to protect the property of the deceased foreign citizen, establish its size and value, ascertain all the heirs, check up on the existence of a will and immediately inform about all this the diplomatic or consular representative of the state of the deceased person.

Are rights of aliens regulated in Ukraine?

The law on the notary activities has a special section regulating notary services for aliens. In all cases they enjoy equal rights with Ukrainian citizens. Aliens are entitled to enter into civil contract – of purchase and sale, making of a gift. They may heir a flat or a country house, etc. In these cases they are subject to all the obligations applying to Ukrainian citizens.

Pensions and pension funds