Courts in Ukraine and Their Functions : A Practical Guide to the Legal Profession in some English-speaking countries and Ukraine - С.М. Воронин и др : Книги по праву, правоведение

Courts in Ukraine and Their Functions

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to create law – утворювати закон / создавать закон

to abolish law – скасовувати закон / отменять закон

to apply law – використовувати, вживати закон / применять закон

justice – правосуддя, справедливість, юстиція / правосудие, справедливость, юстиция

to administer justice – здійснювати правосуддя / осуществлять правосудие

to make decision – приймати рішення / принимать решение

legal action – судовий позов / судебный иск

fair – справедливий / справедливый

trial court – суд, який розглядає справу по суті / суд, рассматривающий дело по существу

general jurisdiction – загальна юрисдикція / общая юрисдикция

to bring in a sentence – виносити вирок / выносить приговор

judgement – вирок, рішення суду / приговор, решение суда

district court – районний суд / районный суд

judicial supervision – судовий нагляд / судебный надзор

interpretation –тлумачення / толкование

prosecutor – обвинувач / обвинитель

plaintiff – позивач / истец

defendant – підсудний, підзахисний, обвинувачений; відповідач / подсудимый, подзащитный, обвиняемый, ответчик

sphere of law – галузь права / отрасль права

to have command of a language – володіти мовою / владеть языком

an office of a judge – посада судді / должность судьи

to appoint to office – призначати на посаду / назначать на должность

term – термін / срок

to hold office – займати посаду / занимать должность

term of office – термін повноважень / срок полномочий

What is the court?

In all legal systems there are institutions for creating, modifying, abolishing and applying the law. Usually these take the form of hierarchy of courts.

The court is a state body that administers justice on behalf of the state. The role of each court and its capacity to make decisions is strictly defined in relation to other courts.

What are the reasons for variety of courts?

There are two main reasons for variety of courts. One is that a particular court can specialize in particular kinds of legal actions. The other is so that a person who feels his case was not fairly treated in a lower court can appeal to a higher court. The decisions of a higher court are binding upon lower courts.

What is the function of a court of first instance (or trial court)?

There are courts of first instance (general jurisdiction) and second instance (appellate jurisdiction). A court in which a case is first heard is called the court of first instance (trial court). A trial court examines a case in substance and brings in a sentence or decision. Any court, from the district court to the Supreme Court of the state may sit as a court of first instance.

What is the function of a court of second instance?

A court of second instance is one which examines appeals and protests against sentences and decisions of courts of first instance. In almost all cases it is possible to appeal to higher court for reconsideration of the of the decision of the original court.

What is the basic judicial body in Ukraine?

The basic judicial body is the district court. District courts try both criminal and civil cases. It is also the duty of the district courts to protect the electoral rights of citizens.

What are the functions of the Supreme Court?

The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction for civil, criminal, administrative and others cases. It exercises judicial supervision and provides interpretation on the issues of court practice. It tries the most important criminal and civil cases and likewise hears appeals against the judgements and sentences of other courts.

What is the task of the Supreme Economic Court of Ukraine?

The Supreme Economic Court is the highest judicial body for settling economic disputes.

What is the role of the Constitutional Court?

The Constitutional Court ensures that the laws and other normative acts passed or being considered by the supreme and local legislative branches are constitutional.

Are cases tried in public?

In all courts cases are tried in public. The participants in the trial (the prosecutor, the lawyers, the plaintiff, the judge, the defendant and the others) speak in the open court. The accused is guaranteed the right to defence. The press has the right to be present.

Are closed sessions allowed?

The hearing of cases in closed sessions is allowed only in exceptional cases. Closed sessions are only allowed if it is in  the interests of both sides or for the necessity to keep state secrets.

Are judges independent?

The judges are independent and they must obey the law.

Who can become a judge in Ukraine?

A citizen of Ukraine, not younger than the age of twenty-five, who has a higher legal education and has work experience in the sphere of law for no less than three years, has resided in Ukraine for no less than ten years and has command of state language, may be recommended for the office of judge by the Qualification Commission of Judges.

Are judges elected or appointed?

The first appointment of a professional judge to office for a five-year term is made by the president of Ukraine. All other judges, except the judges of the Constitutional Court, are elected by the Verkhovna Rada for permanent terms.

What is the term of office of a judge?

Judges hold office for permanent terms, except judges of the Constitutional Court, and judges appointed to the office of judge for the first time.

What is the term of office of a Constitutional Court judge?

The term of office of a Constitutional Court judge is nine years.