Police in the U.S.A., Great Britain and Canada : A Practical Guide to the Legal Profession in some English-speaking countries and Ukraine - С.М. Воронин и др : Книги по праву, правоведение

Police in the U.S.A., Great Britain and Canada

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F.B.I. Interpol.


to preserve public order – підтримувати громадський порядок / поддерживать общественный порядок

tranquility – спокій / спокойствие

prevention, detection and punishment of crimes – попередження, розкриття та покарання злочинів / предупреждение, раскрытие и наказание преступлений

government officers – службовці / служащие

to enforce the law – примусово забезпечити виконання закону / принудительно обеспечивать выполнение закона

to direct traffic – регулювати дорожній рух / регулировать дорожное движение

to settle quarrels – регулювати свари / регулировать ссоры

floods – повінь / наводнение

disasters – стихійні лиха / стихийные бедствия

to provide shelter – надавати притулок / предоставлять убежище

victims – жертви / жертвы

criminal justice system – система правосуддя з кримінальних справ / система правосудия по уголовным делам

substantive criminal law – матеріальне кримінальне право / материальное уголовное право

offenses – правопорушення / правонарушения

crimes – злочини /преступления

liability – відповідальність / ответственность

criminal (penal) codes – кримінальні кодекси / уголовные кодексы

assault – образа словами / словесные оскорбления

assault and battery – образа дією / оскорбление действием

kidnapping – викрадення людей / похищение людей

murder – вбивство / убийство

sexual attacks – напад з метою зґвалтування / нападение с целью изнасилования

arson – підпалення / поджог

motor vehicle theft –  викрадення транспортного засобу / кража транспортного средства

burglary – крадіжка зі зломом / кража со взломом

fraud – обман / обман

larceny – крадіжка / кража

disorderly conduct – порушення громадського порядку / нарушение общественного порядка

embezzlement – розтрата, розкрадання майна / растрата, хищение имущества

forgery – підробка документів / подделка документов

gambling – азартні ігри / азартные игры

to collect evidence – збирати докази / собирать доказательства

bullets – кулі / пули

criminal intelligence – поліцейська розвідка / полицейская разведка

undercover agents – агенти під прикриттям / агенты под прикрытием

juvenile delinquency – злочинність неповнолітніх / преступность несовершеннолетних

encroachment – посягання / посягательство

What is the police?

Police is a branch of the government which is charged with the preservation of public order and tranquility, the promotion of the public health, safety and morals, and the prevention, detection and punishment of crimes.

Who are the police?

Police are government officers who enforce the law and maintain order. They work to prevent crime and to protect the lives and property of the people.

In what way policemen and policewomen serve the people?

They patrol streets to guard against crime and to assist people with various problems.

Police officers direct traffic to keep it running smoothly and safely.

The people are often called to settle quarrels, find lost people and aid accident victims.

During floods, fires and other disasters, they help provide shelter, transportation and protection for victims.

What is a nation’s criminal justice system in the U.S.A.?

A nation’s criminal justice system includes police, courts and prisons.

What is the main function of the police officers?

The main function of the police officers is to enforce criminal law.

What is criminal law?

The substantive criminal law is that law which a) declares what conduct is criminal; and b) prescribes the punishment to be imposed for such conduct. It includes the definition of specific offenses and general principles of liability. Substantive criminal laws are commonly codified into criminal (or penal) codes.

What types of crimes does criminal law cover?

Criminal law covers crimes against people or property: assault, kidnapping, murder and sexual attacks; crimes against property include: arson, motor vehicle theft, burglary, forgery, fraud, larceny, vandalism. Robbery is the crime most difficult to classify. The law considers robbery a crime against the person.

Crimes against public order or morality include disorderly conduct, gambling, prostitution, public drunkenness and vagrancy;

Organized crime consists of large-scale activities by groups of gangsters or racketeers. Such groups are often called the crime syndicate or the underworld. Organized crime includes gambling, prostitution, the illegal sale of drugs and loan-sharking (lending money at extremely high rates of interest).

White-collar crime covers such acts as cheating in the payment of taxes; stock market swindles and other kinds of fraud; computer crimes.

Political crime includes acts of terrorism against innocent people and assassinations of leading political figures, airplane hijackings, bombings and the taking of hostages.

What do police officers do when crimes have been committed?

Police officers investigate such crimes and arrest suspected lawbreakers. They also testify in court trials.

What is the number of police agencies in the U.S.A.?

There are about 40 000 separate police agencies that operate under city, county, state or federal government.

How are police officers called in the U.S.A.?

Police officers in the U.S.A. are often called constables. The word cop may have come from the initials C.O.P. which stood for constable on patrol.

What operations are the foundation of police work?

Patrol operations are the foundation of police work. Patrol officers are assigned beats (areas or routes) to cover on foot, in squad cars, or on motorcycles. In some cities they patrol parks on horseback. Patrol officers survey their beats repeatedly.

What do police officers receive over their radios?

Officers may receive assignments over their radios to handle an auto-accident, investigate a reported crime, or settle a family argument.

What may police officers do if they have reasonable cause to suspect that the persons are committing a crime or are about to commit one?

Police officers may arrest these persons.

Do police officers always arrest suspected persons without official ground?

No. In some cases police officers are required to get a court order called a warrant before making an arrest.

In what way do traffic officers control traffic?

They direct traffic; protect pedestrians; aid motorists; and enforce parking, speed and other traffic laws. Traffic officers also investigate traffic accidents.

What is the process of investigation of crimes?

Investigation of crimes are conducted by detectives, who are sometimes called plainclothes officers because they do not wear uniforms. In some police departments, the term plainclothes officers refers to members of the vice squad. The vice squad investigates cases that involve gambling, prostitution or other illegal activities considered to be immoral.

In what specialized fields do detectives work?

Detectives work in various specialized fields that deal with such crimes as murder, robbery or the illegal sale of drugs.

How detectives may start investigation in a murder case?

In a murder case, detectives may start their investigation by searching for bloodstains, fingerprints and weapons. They question  witnesses, suspects or others who may have information about the crime.

What special technical units may assist the detectives in the process of investigation?

The photography unit takes pictures of the crime scene and examines bloodstains, bullets, hair samples, fingerprints, weapons, and other evidence.

What is criminal intelligence?

The women and men who work in the criminal intelligence division of a police department are called undercover agents. They gather information on such criminal operations as large-scale gambling and illegal sale of drugs.

What is the main task of the officers, who work in the juvenile division of a police department?

These officers try to help the young people and their parents with personal problems. Juvenile officers often refer young people to social agencies rather than bring criminal charges against them in a court. They also investigate crimes that involve the neglect or abuse of young children.

What is the main function of the records bureau of a police department?

The recording bureau keeps files on all reported crimes, investigations and arrest and on various police activities. Many police departments use computers to process and store these records.

What is the job of a central dispatch officer?

He works in the communications center. This officer receives calls for help or reports of crimes and sends officers to the crime scene.

What other specialized units can be found in large police agencies?

Search and rescue teams: They try to find persons lost in forests, mountains, caves.

Hostage-negotiating teams: Members of these teams try to persuade the criminals to release the hostages without harm.

Bomb squads: They search the building or other place where a bomb supposedly has been planted.

Special weapons units: Members of these units are skilled in the use of high-powered rifles and other weapons.

What is the structure of the police in the U.S.A.?

In the U.S.A. police agencies operate under the city, county, state and the federal government. Each agency is responsible only to its own division of government. Private police agencies are licensed by the states to provide certain types of police services.

What are the responsibilities of city police?

The size of a city police depends on the number of population. New York City has the largest city police department in the U.S.A. – about 29 000 police officers.

City police are mainly responsible for enforcing the law in their own city. Some city police departments have specialized forces with certain limited powers: airport police, housing police, park police and transit police. In most cities, the mayor appoints the head of the police department. This official may have the title of chief, commissioner, director, or superintendent. Other ranking police officers include: inspectors, lieutenant colonels, majors, captains, lieutenants, and sergeants.

What are the powers of county police?

The powers of a county police force extent throughout the county. A sheriff, elected by the people, is the chief law enforcement officer in most counties. The duties and powers of the sheriffs department vary from county to county.

What does state police do?

Every state except Hawaii has either a state police force or a state highway patrol force. Both types of agencies are headed by a commission or superintendent appointed by the governor.

State police enforce state laws. They also coordinate police activities within the state and provide technical services and training programs to city and county police department.

What is the F.B.I.?

Federal Bureau of investigation is the chief investigating branch of the U.S. Department of justice. It investigates federal crimes and handles cases involving stolen money or property that has been taken from one state to another.

What is the National Crime Information Center (NCIC)?

The F.B.I. also operates the National Crime Information Center, in Washington D.C.

The NCIC is a computerized information system that stores records on wanted persons and stolen property. Police department in every state are linked with the NCIC through local terminals and may obtain information at any time.

What operations are made by private police agencies?

Private police agencies are licensed by the states to perform limited types of police work. Industrial security police guard factories and warehouses. Campus police protect the people and property of colleges and Universities. Private investigative agencies provide detective services to individuals and businesses.

What is the composition of police forces in Canada?

Canada has national, provincial and city police forces. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) enforces federal laws throughout Canada.

In what way is the police system of Great Britain organized?

In Great Britain the police is organized into about 50 large forces that are connected with local government. These forces operate under the direction of the national government. The London metropolitan police serve greater London except for an area that is called the city of London, which has its own force.

What is the structure of police in Ukraine?

In Ukraine, the Ministry of Internal Affaires (MVD) is in charge of providing general police services. It also investigates certain types of crimes. The investigators, who work in the Ministry of Internal Affairs may conduct pretrial investigation and prepare the materials of the cases for court. There are 24 Regional Police Administrations and 1 Police Administration in the Republic of Crimea in Ukraine. Each administrative district in Ukraine has at least one restrict police unit. All Regional and district police units are subordinated to the Ministry of internal Affairs of Ukraine.

What is Interpol?

Interpol is an international organization of police forces about 160 countries. Its official name is the International Criminal Police Organization. Members of Interpol exchange information about international criminals and cooperate in fighting such international crimes as counterfeiting, smuggling and illegal buying and selling weapons. The headquarters of Interpol are in the city of Lyon in France.

When was Interpol founded?

Interpol was founded in 1923.

What is the main function of Interpol?

Interpol does not have powers to arrest or any investigative rights. Its main function is to disseminate information.

What are the main bodies of Interpol?

Interpol is divided into four main bodies – the General Assembly, the Executive Committee, the General Secretariat and the National Central Bureau.

The Militia in Ukraine

What law regulates the operation of the militia in Ukraine?

The operation of the militia in Ukraine is regulated by the “Law on Militia” adopted in 1990 by the Verkhovna Rada.

What is the Militia?

The militia is a state military organ of the executive power, protecting life, health, rights and freedoms of citizens, property, environment, interests of the society and the state against criminal encroachment.

What are the basic tasks of the militia?

The militia should: - ensure personal security of citizens, protect their rights and freedoms and legislative interests; - prevent violations of public order; - protect and ensure public order; - expose and disclose crimes and search for the persons, committing them; - ensure safety of the traffic; - protect property against criminal encroachments; - execute criminal punishments; - render social and legal help to citizens.

What are the principles of the operation of the militia?

The operation of the militia is based on the principles of legality, humanism, respect for the person, social justice, interrelation with the collectives of workers, public organizations and population.

What is the organizational structure of the militia?

The militia is a unified system of the organs, included into the structure of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The militia exercises administrative, preventive, criminal and procedural functions. The militia consists of the following departments:

criminal militia;

militia of public security;

local militia;

militia of transport;

militia of safeguard;

court militia;

special militia.

What are the basic duties of the militia?

The militia should:

ensure security of citizens and public order;

expose, prevent, stop and disclose the crimes and take all necessary measures, provided for by national legislation;

take and register all applications about crimes and administrative violations;

carry out pretrial investigations and prepare the materials of the case for a court hearing.

29 duties of the officers of the militia are listed in the “Law on Militia.”

In order to perform these duties, the officers of the militia are given some rights. The list of these rights is specified in Article 11 of the “Law on Militia.” This list consists of 31 rights.

What qualities should the officers of the militia possess to carry out their tasks?

To carry out their tasks the officers of the militia should have a profound knowledge of laws, a high cultural level and a broad outlook on life.

Where are these qualities acquired?

These qualities are acquired at specialized secondary and higher legal educational establishments.